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Americans are citizens of the United States of America. The country is home to people of many different national origins. As a result, Americans do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but with citizenship and allegiance. Although citizens make up the majority of Americans, non-citizen residents, dual citizens, and expatriates may also claim an American identity.
English-speakers, and even speakers of many other languages, typically use the term "American" to exclusively mean people of the United States; this developed from its original use to differentiate English people of the American colonies from English people of England. The word "American" can also refer to people from the Americas in general. See Names for United States citizens.
The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, and American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can also be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists, settlers, and immigrants. It also includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia, Africa, and Latin America has also had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics.
In addition to the United States, Americans and people of American descent can be found internationally. As many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, and make up the American diaspora.
Racial and ethnic groupsEdit
The United States of America is a diverse country, racially, and ethnically. Six races are officially recognized by the U.S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and people of two or more races. "Some other race" is also an option in the census and other surveys.
The United States Census Bureau also classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation.
White and European AmericansEdit
People of European descent, or White Americans (also referred to as Caucasian Americans), constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census.[lower-alpha 1] They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial; with largest combination being white and black. Additionally, there are 29,184,290 White Hispanics or Latinos. Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, Texas, New Mexico, and Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority. The state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine.
The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe. This includes people via African, North American, Caribbean, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European diaspora.
The Spanish were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years later, Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the Thirteen Colonies to English parents.
In the 2014 American Community Survey, German Americans (14.4%), Irish Americans (10.4%), English Americans (7.6%) and Italian Americans (5.4%) were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 37.8% of the total population. However, the English-Americans and British-Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as simply 'Americans' due to the length of time they have inhabited America.
Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, and median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation.
|White and European American population by ancestry group|
|Rank||Ancestry group||% of total population||Pop. estimates||R.|
|8|| French (except Basque)|
|Total||White and European American||231,040,398|||
|2010 United States Census & 2014 American Community Survey|
Hispanic and Latino AmericansEdit
Hispanic or Latino Americans (of any race) constitute the largest ethnic minority in the United States. They form the second largest group after non-Hispanic Whites in the United States, comprising 16.3% of the population according to the 2010 United States Census.[lower-alpha 2]
People of Spanish or Hispanic descent have lived in what is now the United States since the founding of St. Augustine, Florida in 1565 by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. In the State of Texas, Spaniards first settled the region in the late 1600s and formed a unique cultural group known as Tejanos (Texanos).
|Hispanic and Latino American population by national origin|
|Rank||National origin||% of total population||Pop.|
|Hispanic and Latino American (total)||16.34%||50,477,594|
|2010 United States Census|
Black and African AmericansEdit
Black and African Americans are citizens and residents of the United States with origins in Sub-Saharan Africa. According to the Office of Management and Budget, the grouping includes individuals who self-identify as African American, as well as persons who emigrated from nations in the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa. The grouping is thus based on geography, and may contradict or misrepresent an individual's self-identification since not all immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa are "Black". Among these racial outliers are persons from Cape Verde, Madagascar, various Arab states and Hamito-Semitic populations in East Africa and the Sahel, and the Afrikaners of Southern Africa.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans, and formerly as American Negroes) are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa. According to the 2009 American Community Survey, there were 38,093,725 Black and African Americans in the United States, representing 12.4% of the population. In addition, there were 37,144,530 non-Hispanic blacks, which comprised 12.1% of the population. This number increased to 42 million according to the 2010 United States Census, when including Multiracial African Americans, making up 14% of the total U.S. population.[lower-alpha 3] Black and African Americans make up the second largest group in the United States, but the third largest group after White Americans and Hispanic or Latino Americans (of any race). The majority of the population (55%) lives in the South; compared to the 2000 Census, there has also been a decrease of African Americans in the Northeast and Midwest.
Most African Americans are the direct descendants of captives from West Africa, who survived the slavery era within the boundaries of the present United States. As an adjective, the term is usually spelled African-American. The first West African slaves were brought to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. The English settlers treated these captives as indentured servants and released them after a number of years. This practice was gradually replaced by the system of race-based slavery used in the Caribbean. All the American colonies had slavery, but it was usually the form of personal servants in the North (where 2% of the people were slaves), and field hands in plantations in the South (where 25% were slaves); by the beginning of the American Revolutionary War 1/5th of the total population was enslaved. During the revolution, some would serve in the Continental Army or Continental Navy, while others would serve the British Empire in Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment, and other units. By 1804, the northern states (north of the Mason–Dixon line) had abolished slavery. However, slavery would persist in the southern states until the end of the American Civil War and the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment. Following the end of the Reconstruction Era, which saw the first African American representation in Congress, African Americans became disenfranchised and subject to Jim Crow laws, legislation that would persist until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act due to the Civil Rights Movement.
According to US Census Bureau data, very few African immigrants self-identify as African American. On average, less than 5% of African residents self-reported as "African American" or "Afro-American" on the 2000 US Census. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants (~95%) identified instead with their own respective ethnicities. Self-designation as "African American" or "Afro-American" was highest among individuals from West Africa (4%-9%), and lowest among individuals from Cape Verde, East Africa and Southern Africa (0%-4%). African immigrants may also experience conflict with African Americans.
|Black and African American population by ancestry group|
|Rank||Ancestry group|| Percentage|
of total est. population
|4||Trinidadian and Tobagonian||0.06%||193,233|
|Sub-Saharan African (total)||0.92%||2,864,067|
|West Indian (total) (except Hispanic groups)||0.85%||2,633,149|
|Black and African Americans (total)||13.6%|| 42,020,743|
2010 United States Census
|2009–2011 American Community Survey|
Another significant population is the Asian American population, comprising 17.3 million in 2010, or 5.6% of the U.S. population.[lower-alpha 4] California is home to 5.6 million Asian Americans, the greatest number in any state. In Hawaii, Asian Americans make up the highest proportion of the population (57 percent). Asian Americans live across the country, yet are heavily urbanized, with significant populations in the Greater Los Angeles Area, New York metropolitan area, and the San Francisco Bay Area.
They are by no means a monolithic group. The largest sub-groups are immigrants or descendants of immigrants from Cambodia, Mainland China, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Pakistan, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Asians overall have higher income levels than all other racial groups in the United States, including whites, and the trend appears to be increasing in relation to those groups. Additionally, Asians have a higher education attainment level than all other racial groups in the United States. For better or worse, the group has been called a model minority.
While Asian Americans have been in what is now the United States since before the Revolutionary War, relatively large waves of Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese immigration did not begin until the mid-to-late 19th century. Immigration and significant population growth continue to this day. Due to a number of factors, Asian Americans have been stereotyped as "perpetual foreigners".
|Asian American ancestries|
of total population
|Asian American (total)||5.6%||17,320,856|
|2010 United States Census|
Middle Easterners and North AfricansEdit
According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans (viz. Jews and Berbers) arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, and a few were also taken to the Americas as slaves.
According to the Arab American Institute (AAI), countries of origin for Arab Americans include Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
In 1909, the Superior Court and the Department of Justice in Washington D.C. ruled on a case that redefined Middle Easterners and their racial distinction. According to the Arab American Historical Foundation and the Los Angeles Herald, a case in which George Shishim, a Lebanese policeman, arrested a "white" man, who claimed that because Shishim was Lebanese, he must not be racially "white", but rather "Chinese-Mongolian". Shishim, his attorneys, and the Syrian-Lebanese and Arab American communities rallied to prove that Lebanese, Syrians, and all Arabs and Middle Easterners were in fact "white" to both gain official citizenship in the United States, as well as avoid other exclusive and restrictive penalties of being labeled as Asian. One of Shishim's arguments appealed to the white justices' desire to connect to their revered religious figure, Jesus. Shishim said: "If I am a Mongolian, then so was Jesus, because we came from the same land." As noted in the 1909 publication of the "Proceedings of the Asiatic Exclusion League", the presiding Judge Hutton concluded that Syrians had descended from Hebrews, who descended from "the Semitic family of the 'Indo-Aryan raceTemplate:'", but because the Mongol conquerors had killed the Syrian men, and interbred with the Syrian women, "western nations have been unable to restore [the Syrians'] original characteristics" (6). Shishim won and was granted citizenship, and Middle Easterners were thereafter legally considered "white" in the United States.
However, in 1910, Congress passed a bill that defined "Armenians, Assyrians, and Jews" as "Asiatics", while still approving their claims to citizenship. This declaration, while not taking away their citizenship, affirmed the ethnic origins and identities of Armenians, Assyrians, and Jews as "non-white".
Over the decades of the 20th century, as more Arab Americans, Jewish Americans and other ethnic groups settled in the United States, the racial discrimination they faced also increased. Due to the ruling in Shishim's case and the interpretation of the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, United States citizens could not sue one another for discrimination if they belonged to "the same race". However, in 1987, after an Iraqi-American associate professor was refused tenure due to his Arab origins and a synagogue was spray-painted with anti-Semitic insignia, the Supreme Court ruled "unanimously today that Arabs, Jews and members of other ethnic groups may sue under a post-Civil War law's broad prohibition against discrimination." Parallel with this ruling, many members of these groups, from Jews to North Africans to Arab Americans, did not consider themselves "white".
Additionally, as modern scientific data improved, more information on the true origins and ethnic distinctions emerged. For example, studies have shown that Jews share more genetic relativity to other Jews around the world than to the surrounding non-Jewish ethnic groups. Some studies have also suggested that other Middle Eastern (non-Jewish) ethnic groups remain one of the closest relations to Jews.
The United States Census Bureau is presently finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. In 2012, prompted in part by post-9/11 discrimination, the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee petitioned the Department of Commerce's Minority Business Development Agency to designate the MENA populations as a minority/disadvantaged community. Following consultations with MENA organizations, the Census Bureau announced in 2014 that it would establish a new MENA ethnic category for populations from the Middle East, North Africa and the Arab world, separate from the "white" classification that these populations had previously sought in 1909. The expert groups, including some Jewish organizations, felt that the earlier "white" designation no longer accurately represents MENA identity, so they successfully lobbied for a distinct categorization. This process does not currently include ethnoreligious groups such as Jews or Sikhs, as the Bureau only tabulates these groups as followers of religions rather than members of ethnic groups.
As of December 2015, the sampling strata for the new MENA category includes the Census Bureau's working classification of 19 MENA groups, as well as Turkish, Sudanese, Djiboutian, Somali, Mauritanian, Armenian, Cypriot, Afghan, Azerbaijani and Georgian groups.
|Ancestry||2000||2000 (% of US population)||2010||2010 (% of US population)|
|"North Caucasian Turkic"||1,347||0.0005%||290,893||0.0942%|
Although tabulated, "religious responses" were reported as a single total and not differentiated, despite totaling 1,089,597 in 2000.
Independent organizations provide improved estimates of the total populations of races and ethnicities in the US using the raw data from the US Census and other surveys.
For example, although any respondents who self-identified as Jewish were included under the religious responses in the census, as Jews are an ethnoreligious group with culture and ethnicity intertwined, estimates from the Mandell L. Berman Institute and the North American Jewish Data Bank put the total population of Jews between 5.34 and 6.16 million in 2000 and around 6.54 million in 2010. Similarly, the Arab-American Institute estimated the population of Arab Americans at 3.7 million in 2012.
The majority of Arab Americans are Christian. Most Maronites tend to be of Lebanese, Syrian, or Cypriot extraction; the majority of Christians of Cypriot and Palestinian background are often Eastern Orthodox.
Estimated African MENA populations in the United States:
- Algerian American: 8,752 (2000 Census)
- Canarian American: 45,000-75,000 (2000 statistics)
- Djiboutian American: 300 (2000 Census)
- Egyptian American: 190,078 (2010 census. In 2008 them were estimated in 800,000 - 2,000,000)
- Libyan American: 9,000 (2010 Census)
- Mauritanian American: 992 (2000 Census)
- Moroccan American: 82,073 (2010 Census)
- Somali American: 85,700 (2012 ACS)
- Sudanese American: 42,249 (2010 Census)
- Tunisian American: 4,735 (2000 Census)
American Indians and Alaska NativesEdit
According to the 2010 Census, there are 5.2 million people who are Native Americans or Alaska Native alone, or in combination with one or more races; they make up 1.7% of the total population.[lower-alpha 5] According to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), an "American Indian or Alaska Native" is a person whose ancestry have origins in any of the original peoples of North, Central, or South America. 2.3 million individuals who are American Indian or Alaskan Native are multiracial; additionally the plurality of American Indians reside in the Western United States (40.7%). Collectively and historically this race has been known by several names; as of 1995, 50% of those who fall within the OMB definition prefer the term "American Indian", 37% prefer "Native American" and the remainder have no preference or prefer a different term altogether.
Native Americans, whose ancestry is indigenous to the Americas, originally migrated to the two continents between 10,000-45,000 years ago. These Paleoamericans spread throughout the two continents and evolved into hundreds of distinct cultures during the pre-Columbian era. Following the first voyage of Christopher Columbus, the European colonization of the Americas began, with St. Augustine, Florida becoming the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States. From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the population of Native Americans declined in the following ways: epidemic diseases brought from Europe; genocide and warfare at the hands of European explorers and colonists, as well as between tribes; displacement from their lands; internal warfare, enslavement; and intermarriage.
|American Indian and Alaska Native population by selected tribal groups|
|Rank||National origin|| Percentage|
of total population
|4||Mexican American Indian||0.05%||175,494|
|American Indian (total)||1.69%||5,220,579|
|2010 United States Census|
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific IslandersEdit
As defined by the United States Census Bureau and the Office of Management and Budget, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders are "persons having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands". Previously called Asian Pacific American, along with Asian Americans beginning in 1976, this was changed in 1997. As of the 2010 United States Census there are 1.2 million who reside in the United States, and make up 0.4% of the nation's total population, of whom 56% are multiracial.[lower-alpha 6] 14% of the population have at least a bachelor's degree, and 15.1% live in poverty, below the poverty threshold. As compared to the 2000 United States Census this population grew by 40%; and 71% live in the West; of those over half (52%) live in either Hawaii or California, with no other states having populations greater than 100,000. The largest concentration of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, is Honolulu County in Hawaii, and Los Angeles County in the continental United States.
|Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander by ancestries|
|Other Pacific Islanders||0.09%||308,697|
|Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (total)||0.39%||1,225,195|
|2010 United States Census|
Two or more racesEdit
The United States has a growing multiracial identity movement. Multiracial Americans numbered 7.0 million in 2008, or 2.3% of the population; by the 2010 census the Multiracial increased to 9,009,073, or 2.9% of the total population. They can be any combination of races (White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, "some other race") and ethnicities. The largest population of Multiracial Americans were those of White and African American descent, with a total of 1,834,212 self-identifying individuals. Barack Obama, 44th President of the United States, is biracial with his mother being of English and Irish descent and his father being of Kenyan birth; however, Obama only self-identifies as being African American.
|Population by selected Two or More Races Population|
|Rank||Specific Combinations|| Percentage|
of total population
|2||White; Some Other Race||0.56%||1,740,924|
|4||White; Native American||0.46%||1,432,309|
|5||African American; Some Other Race||0.1%||314,571|
|6||African American; Native American||0.08%||269,421|
|All other specific combinations||0.58%||1,794,402|
|Multiracial Americans (Total)||2.9%||9,009,073|
|2010 United States Census|
Some other raceEdit
According to the 2010 United States Census, 6.2% or 19,107,368 Americans chose to self-identify with the "some other race" category, the third most popular option. Also, 36.7% or 18,503,103 Hispanic/Latino Americans chose to identify as some other race as these Hispanic/Latinos may feel the U.S. Census does not describe their European and American Indian ancestry as they understand it to be. A significant portion of the Hispanic and Latino population self-identifies as Mestizo, particularly the Mexican and Central American community. Mestizo is not a racial category in the U.S. Census, but signifies someone who has both European and American Indian ancestry.
Uncle Sam is a national personification of the United States and sometimes more specifically of the American government, with the first usage of the term dating from the War of 1812. He is depicted as a stern elderly white man with white hair and a goatee beard, and dressed in clothing that recalls the design elements of the flag of the United States – for example, typically a top hat with red and white stripes and white stars on a blue band, and red and white striped trousers.
Columbia is a poetic name for the Americas and the feminine personification of the United States of America, made famous by African-American poet Phillis Wheatley during the American Revolutionary War in 1776. It has inspired the names of many persons, places, objects, institutions, and companies in the Western Hemisphere and beyond, including the District of Columbia, the seat of government of the United States.
|Language|| Percent of|
| Number of|
| Combined total of all languages|
other than English
(excluding Puerto Rico and Spanish Creole)
(including Cantonese and Mandarin)
English is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements—standardize English. In 2007, about 226 million, or 80% of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at home. Spanish, spoken by 12% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language. Some Americans advocate making English the country's official language, as it is in at least twenty-eight states. Both English and Hawaiian are official languages in Hawaii by state law.
While neither has an official language, New Mexico has laws providing for the use of both English and Spanish, as Louisiana does for English and French. Other states, such as California, mandate the publication of Spanish versions of certain government documents. The latter include court forms. Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan and Chamorro are recognized by American Samoa and Guam, respectively; Carolinian and Chamorro are recognized by the Northern Mariana Islands; Spanish is an official language of Puerto Rico.
|Affiliation||% of U.S. population|
|Evangelical Protestant||25.4|| |
|Mainline Protestant||14.7|| |
|Black church||6.5|| |
|Jehovah's Witnesses||0.8|| |
|Eastern Orthodox||0.5|| |
|Other Christian||0.4|| |
|Non-Christian faiths||5.9|| |
|Other Non-Christian faiths||1.8|| |
|Nothing in particular||15.8|| |
|Don't know/refused answer||0.6|| |
Religion in the United States has a high adherence level compared to other developed countries, as well as a diversity in beliefs. The First Amendment to the country's Constitution prevents the Federal government from making any "law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof". The U.S. Supreme Court has interpreted this as preventing the government from having any authority in religion. A majority of Americans report that religion plays a "very important" role in their lives, a proportion unusual among developed countries, although similar to the other nations of the Americas. Many faiths have flourished in the United States, including both later imports spanning the country's multicultural immigrant heritage, as well as those founded within the country; these have led the United States to become the most religiously diverse country in the world.
The majority of Americans (76%) are Christians, mostly within Protestant and Catholic denominations; these adherents constitute 51% and 25% of the population, respectively. Other religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism, which collectively make up about 4% to 5% of the adult population. Another 15% of the adult population identifies as having no religious belief or no religious affiliation. According to the American Religious Identification Survey, religious belief varies considerably across the country: 59% of Americans living in Western states (the "Unchurched Belt") report a belief in God, yet in the South (the "Bible Belt") the figure is as high as 86%.
Several of the original Thirteen Colonies were established by settlers who wished to practice their own religion without discrimination: the Massachusetts Bay Colony was established by English Puritans, Pennsylvania by Irish and English Quakers, Maryland by English and Irish Catholics, and Virginia by English Anglicans. Although some individual states retained established religious confessions well into the 19th century, the United States was the first nation to have no official state-endorsed religion. Modeling the provisions concerning religion within the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, the framers of the Constitution rejected any religious test for office, and the First Amendment specifically denied the federal government any power to enact any law respecting either an establishment of religion or prohibiting its free exercise, thus protecting any religious organization, institution, or denomination from government interference. The decision was mainly influenced by European Rationalist and Protestant ideals, but was also a consequence of the pragmatic concerns of minority religious groups and small states that did not want to be under the power or influence of a national religion that did not represent them.
Its chief early European influences came from English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish settlers of colonial America during British rule. British culture, due to colonial ties with Britain that spread the English language, legal system and other cultural inheritances, had a formative influence. Other important influences came from other parts of Europe, especially Germany, France, and Italy.
Original elements also play a strong role, such as Jeffersonian democracy. Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia was perhaps the first influential domestic cultural critique by an American and a reactionary piece to the prevailing European consensus that America's domestic originality was degenerate. Prevalent ideas and ideals that evolved domestically, such as national holidays, uniquely American sports, military tradition, and innovations in the arts and entertainment give a strong sense of national pride among the population as a whole.
American culture includes both conservative and liberal elements, scientific and religious competitiveness, political structures, risk taking and free expression, materialist and moral elements. Despite certain consistent ideological principles (e.g. individualism, egalitarianism, faith in freedom and democracy), the American culture has a variety of expressions due to its geographical scale and demographic diversity.
- American ethnicity
- Americans and Canadians in Chile
- American studies
- Ancestry of the people of the United States
- Emigration from the United States
- Hispanic and Latino Americans
- Hyphenated American
- Immigration to the United States
- Making North America (2015 PBS film)
- Names for United States citizens
- Race and ethnicity in the United States
- Stereotypes of Americans
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Christine Barbour; Gerald C Wright (January 15, 2013). Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics, 6th Edition The Essentials. CQ Press. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-1-4522-4003-9Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=40dPkS2aRZEC&pg=PA31. Retrieved January 6, 2015. "Who Is An American? Native-born and naturalized citizens"
Shklar, Judith N. (1991). American Citizenship: The Quest for Inclusion. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Harvard University Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 9780674022164Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=8n829DOw1PMC&pg=PA3. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
Slotkin, Richard (2001). "Unit Pride: Ethnic Platoons and the Myths of American Nationality". American Literary History (Oxford University Press) 13 (3): 469–498. doi:10.1093/alh/13.3.469. http://wesscholar.wesleyan.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1028&context=div2facpubs. Retrieved December 17, 2012. "But it also expresses a myth of American nationality that remains vital in our political and cultural life: the idealized self-image of a multiethnic, multiracial democracy, hospitable to differences but united by a common sense of national belonging."
Eder, Klaus; Giesen, Bernhard (2001). European Citizenship: Between National Legacies and Postnational Projects. Oxford University Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 9780199241200Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=lL-FiY6xhfUC&lpg=PA26&dq=%22American%20nationality%22%20citizenship&pg=PA25#v=onepage&q=%22American%20nationality%22%20citizenship&f=false. Retrieved February 1, 2013. "In inter-state relations, the American nation state presents its members as a monistic political body-despite ethnic and national groups in the interior."
Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip (1982). Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press. p. 62. ISBN 9780674157262Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=7Mkxdz_3d-oC&lpg=PA62&vq=To%20be%20or%20to%20become%20an%20American&pg=PA62#v=snippet&q=To%20be%20or%20to%20become%20an%20American&f=false. Retrieved February 1, 2013. "To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American."
Charles Hirschman; Philip Kasinitz; Josh Dewind (November 4, 1999). The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience. Russell Sage Foundation. p. 300. ISBN 978-1-61044-289-3Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=nPsWAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA300.
David Halle (July 15, 1987). America's Working Man: Work, Home, and Politics Among Blue Collar Property Owners. University of Chicago Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-226-31366-5Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=1KCdTkq56zoC&pg=PA233. "The first, and central, way involves the view that Americans are all those persons born within the boundaries of the United States or admitted to citizenship by the government."
- ↑ Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip (1982). Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press. p. 62. ISBN 9780674157262Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=7Mkxdz_3d-oC&lpg=PA62&vq=To%20be%20or%20to%20become%20an%20American&pg=PA62#v=snippet&q=To%20be%20or%20to%20become%20an%20American&f=false. Retrieved February 1, 2013. "...from Thomas Paine's plea in 1783...to Henry Clay's remark in 1815... "It is hard for us to believe ... how conscious these early Americans were of the job of developing American character out of the regional and generational polaritities and contradictions of a nation of immigrants and migrants." ... To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American."
- ↑ Template:Subscription required Script error
- ↑ Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, p. 87. Retrieved November 28, 2008.
- ↑ Fiorina, Morris P., and Paul E. Peterson (2000). The New American Democracy. London: Longman, p. 97. ISBN 0-321-07058-5Script error.
- ↑ U.S. Census Bureau. Foreign-Born Population Frequently asked Questions viewed January 19, 2015. The U.S. Census Bureau uses the terms native and native born to refer to anyone born in Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the U.S. Virgin Islands.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 Adams, J.Q., and Pearlie Strother-Adams (2001). Dealing with Diversity. Chicago: Kendall/Hunt. ISBN 0-7872-8145-XScript error.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Thompson, William, and Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-41365-XScript error.
- ↑ Holloway, Joseph E. (2005). Africanisms in American Culture, 2d ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 18–38. ISBN 0-253-34479-4Script error. Johnson, Fern L. (1999). Speaking Culturally: Language Diversity in the United States. Thousand Oaks, California, London, and New Delhi: Sage, p. 116. ISBN 0-8039-5912-5Script error.
- ↑ Jay Tolson (July 28, 2008). "A Growing Trend of Leaving America". U.S. News & World Report. http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2008/07/28/a-growing-trend-of-leaving-america. Retrieved December 17, 2012. "Estimates made by organizations such as the Association of Americans Resident Overseas put the number of nongovernment-employed Americans living abroad anywhere between 4 million and 7 million, a range whose low end is based loosely on the government's trial count in 1999."
- ↑ "6.32 million Americans (excluding military) live in 160-plus countries.". Association of Americans Resident Overseas. http://www.aaro.org/about-aaro/6m-americans-abroad. Retrieved December 17, 2012. "The total is the highest released to date: close to 6.32 million."
- ↑ "The American Diaspora". Esquire (Hurst Communications, Inc.). http://www.esquire.com/features/american-diaspora-1008. Retrieved December 17, 2012. "he most frequently cited estimate of nonmilitary U. S. citizens living overseas is between three and six million, based on a very rough State Department calculation in 1999--and never updated."
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- ↑ "Race, Combinations of Two Races, and Not Hispanic or Latino: 2010". United States Census Bureau. 2010. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_SF1/QTP4. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- ↑ "Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010". United States Census Bureau. 2010. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_SF1/QTP10. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- ↑ "Our Diverse Population: Race and Hispanic Origin, 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/population/pop-profile/2000/chap16.pdf. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity". Office of Management and Budget. Archived from the original on March 15, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090315191301/https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/1997standards.html. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 Grieco, Elizabeth M; Rachel C. Cassidy. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/cenbr01-1.pdf. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- ↑ "Detailed Tables - American FactFinder; T3-2008. Race ". 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-state=dt&-context=dt&-ds_name=PEP_2008_EST&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=PEP_2008_EST_G2008_T003_2008&-tree_id=809&-redoLog=false&-currentselections=PEP_2006_EST_G2006_T004_2006&-geo_id=01000US&-geo_id=02000US1&-geo_id=02000US2&-geo_id=02000US3&-geo_id=02000US4&-search_results=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- ↑ "Detailed Tables - American FactFinder; T4-2008. Hispanic or Latino By Race ". 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-state=dt&-context=dt&-ds_name=PEP_2008_EST&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=PEP_2008_EST_G2008_T004_2008&-tree_id=809&-redoLog=false&-currentselections=PEP_2006_EST_G2006_T004_2006&-geo_id=01000US&-geo_id=02000US1&-geo_id=02000US2&-geo_id=02000US3&-geo_id=02000US4&-search_results=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Acosta, Yesenia D.; de la Cruz, G. Patricia; Gamino, Christina; Gryn, Thomas; Larsen, Luke J.; Trevelyan, Edward N.; Walters, Nathan P. (May 2012). "The Foreign Born Population in the United States: 2010". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/acs-19.pdf. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 Lindsay Hixson; Bradford B. Hepler; Myoung Ouk Kim (September 2011). "The White Population: 2010". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-05.pdf. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- ↑ Bernstein, Robert (May 17, 2012). "Most Children Younger Than Age 1 are Minorities, Census Bureau Reports". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb12-90.html. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- ↑ Ohio State University. Diversity Dictionary. 2006. September 4, 2006. OSU.edu
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- ↑ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.
- ↑ Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
- ↑ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44-6.
- ↑ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82-86.
- ↑ "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004". http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf.
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- ↑ 35.0 35.1 "B04006, People Reporting Ancestry". 2009-2011 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_3YR_B04006&prodType=table. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- ↑ "Table 52. Population by Selected Ancestry Group and Region: 2009". 2009 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. January 2011. http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2012/tables/12s0052.pdf. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- ↑ Sharon R. Ennis; Merarys Ríos-Vargas; Nora G. Albert (May 2011). "The Hispanic Population: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 14 (Table 6). http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-04.pdf. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 United States – QT-P3. Race, Combinations of Two Races, and Not Hispanic or Latino: 2000.
- ↑ Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R.. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf. Retrieved March 28, 2011. ""Hispanic or Latino" refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race."
- ↑ Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Rachel C. Cassidy. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/cenbr01-1.pdf. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ↑ "T4-2007. Hispanic or Latino By Race ". 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 10, 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100910002417/http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-ds_name=PEP_2007_EST&-mt_name=PEP_2007_EST_G2007_T004_2007&-CONTEXT=dt&-redoLog=true&-currentselections=PEP_2006_EST_G2006_T004_2006&-geo_id=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en.
- ↑ "B03002. Hispanic or Latino origin by race". 2007 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 2, 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100902101116/http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-mt_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G2000_B03002&-CONTEXT=dt&-redoLog=true&-currentselections=PEP_2006_EST_G2006_T004_2006&-geo_id=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en.
- ↑ Tafoya, Sonya (December 6, 2004). "Shades of Belonging" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/35.pdf. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- ↑ Sharon R. Ennis; Merarys Ríos-Vargas; Nora G. Albert (May 2011). "The Hispanic Population: 2010". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-04.pdf. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
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- ↑ 46.0 46.1 "Race, Ethnicity, and Language data - Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement". Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. http://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/publications/files/iomracereport.pdf. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- ↑ 47.0 47.1 47.2 Sonya Tastogi; Tallese D. Johnson; Elizabeth M. Hoeffel; Malcolm P. Drewery, Jr. (September 2011). "The Black Population: 2010". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-06.pdf. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- ↑ McKinnon, Jesse. "The Black Population: 2000 United States Census Bureau" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-5.pdf. Retrieved October 22, 2007.
- ↑ United States – ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2009. Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
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- ↑ "The Prize". We Shall Overcome. National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/civilrights/prize.htm. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
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- ↑ Shan Li (May 3, 2013). "Asian Americans had higher poverty rate than whites in 2011, study says". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/business/money/la-fi-mo-asian-american-poverty-20130502,0,7842601.story. Retrieved May 6, 2013. "In 2011, for example, nearly a third of Asians in the U.S. lived in the metropolitan regions around Los Angeles, San Francisco and New York."
"Selected Population Profile in the United States". U.S. Census. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IPTable?_bm=y&-context=ip&-reg=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201:031;ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201PR:031;ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201T:031;ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201TPR:031&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201PR&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201T&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201TPR&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&-tree_id=3307&-geo_id=31000US16980&-geo_id=31000US19100&-geo_id=31000US31100&-geo_id=31000US35620&-geo_id=31000US41740&-geo_id=31000US41860&-search_results=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
- ↑ Meizhu Lui, Barbara Robles, Betsy Leondar-Wright, Rose Brewer, and Rebecca Adamson (2006). The Color of Wealth.. The New Press..
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- ↑ Chou, Rosalind; Joe R. Feagin (2008). The myth of the model minority: Asian Americans facing racism. Paradigm Publishers. p. x. ISBN 978-1-59451-586-6Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=_HoaAQAAIAAJ&q=Model+Minority+Asians&dq=Model+Minority+Asians. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- ↑ Tamar Lewin (June 10, 2008). "Report Takes Aim at 'Model Minority' Stereotype of Asian-American Students". New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/10/education/10asians.html. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
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- ↑ "California Declares Filipino American History Month". San Francisco Business Times. September 10, 2009. http://www.bizjournals.com/sanfrancisco/stories/2009/09/07/daily59.html. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
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- ↑ Nicole Duran (November 3, 2011). "Asian-Americans Are Fastest-Growing Minority Population". National Journal. http://www.nationaljournal.com/politics/asian-americans-are-fastest-growing-minority-population-20111101. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- ↑ Lien, Pei-te; Mary Margaret Conway; Janelle Wong (2004). The politics of Asian Americans: diversity and community. Psychology Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-415-93465-7Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=o7ucGq1RZ-EC&lpg=PA7&dq=%22asian%20americans%22%20perpetual%20foreigners&pg=PA7#v=onepage&q=%22asian%20americans%22%20perpetual%20foreigners&f=false. Retrieved February 9, 2012. "In addition, because of their perceived racial difference, rapid and continuous immigration from Asia, and on going detente with communist regimes in Asia, Asian Americans are construed as "perpetual foreigners" who cannot or will not adapt to the language, customs, religions, and politics of the American mainstream."
- ↑ Wu, Frank H. (2003). Yellow: race in America beyond black and white. Basic Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-465-00640-3Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=JkPvf5Cs-DgC&lpg=PA77&dq=%22asian%20americans%22%20perpetual%20foreigners&pg=PA79#v=onepage&q=%22asian%20americans%22%20perpetual%20foreigners&f=false. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- ↑ "History Crash Course #55: Jews and the Founding of America" Spiro, Rabbi Ken. Aish.com. Published December 8, 2001. Accessed December 12, 2015. "The first Jews arrived in America with Columbus in 1492, and we also know that Jews newly-converted to Christianity were among the first Spaniards to arrive in Mexico with Conquistador Hernando Cortez in 1519."
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- ↑ "Timeline in American Jewish History" American Jewish Archives. Accessed December 12, 2015.
- ↑ "The American Jewish Experience through the Nineteenth Century: Immigration and Acculturation" Golden, Jonathan, and Jonathan D. Sarna. National Humanities Center. Brandeis University. Accessed December 12, 2015.
- ↑ Netanyahu, Benzion.The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth Century Spain. New York: Random House, 1995. Hardcover. 1390 pages. p. 1085.
- ↑ "Conversos & Crypto-Jews" City of Albuquerque. Accessed December 12, 2015.
- ↑ "Arab American Institute – Texas". Arab American Institute. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120207192658/http://www.aaiusa.org/page/file/b44c4328067fdc4dce_fybmvypay.pdf/TXdemographics.pdf. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
- ↑ 89.0 89.1 "Dept. of Justice Affirms in 1909 Whether Syrians, Turks, and Arabs are of White or Yellow Race" Arab American Historical Foundation. Accessed December 14, 2015.
- ↑ 90.0 90.1 "Lobbying for a 'MENA' category on U.S. Census" Wiltz, Teresea. USA Today. Published October 7, 2014. Accessed December 14, 2015.
- ↑ "Proceedings of the Asiatic Exclusion League" San Francisco: November 1909. Pg. 6. Accessed December 14, 2015. "As to the Syrians, it must be admitted that for 1500 years before Christ they trace their descent from the Hebraic branch of the Semitic family of the Indo-Aryan race, but the Mongolian incursion of the first and thirteenth centuries, when the male Syrians were slain and the females taken to wife by their Mongol conquerors, so altered their racial composition that centuries of contact with the western nations have been unable to restore their original characteristics."
- ↑ "Proceedings of the Asiatic Exclusion League" Asiatic Exclusion League. San Francisco: April 1910. Pg. 7. "To amend section twenty-one hundred and sixty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that section twenty-one hundred and sixty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States be, and the same is hereby, amended by adding thereto the following: And Mongolians, Malays, and other Asiatics, except Armenians, Assyrians, and Jews, shall not be naturalized in the United States."
- ↑ Three Anti-Jewish Hate Crimes Prosecuted In April In Texas, Utah And New Mexico United States Department of Defense. Civil Rights Division. Published May 2014. Accessed December 15, 2015.
- ↑ "Unraveling Anti-Semitic 9/11 Conspiracy Theories" Foxman, Abraham H. and Glen A. Tobias. Gorowitz Institute. ADL.com. Published September 2, 2003. Accessed December 15, 2015.
- ↑ "HIGH COURT HOLDS 1866 RACE-BIAS LAW IS A BROADER TOOL" Taylor, Stuart Jr. Published May 19, 1987. Accessed December 14, 2015.
- ↑ "HIGH COURT HOLDS 1866 RACE-BIAS LAW IS A BROADER TOOL" Taylor, Stuart Jr. Published May 19, 1987. Accessed December 14, 2015. "In its two decisions today, the Court upheld the rights of an Iraqi-American associate professor to use the law in a suit asserting that he was denied tenure because of his Arab origins and of a Jewish congregation to use it in a damage suit against eight men accused of spray-painting its synagogue with large Nazi and anti-Semitic symbols and slogans."
- ↑ 97.0 97.1 Cohen, Debra Nussbaum. "New U.S. Census Category to Include Israeli' Option". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/jewish/features/.premium-1.661491. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
- ↑ Ethnic Identity and the Census: The Case of the American Jewish Population Rosenwaike, Ira. Published 1985. Accessed December 12, 2015. "the realities of the situation are that many religious and non-religious Jews think of themselves as ethnically (as a people, a culture, a language) Jewish, not German, Polish, Ukrainian, etc." pg. 12.
- ↑ "American Jews, Race, Identity, and the Civil Rights Movement" Rosenbaum, Judith. Jewish Women's Archive. Accessed December 12, 2015. "Today, many American Jews retain an ambivalence about whiteness, despite the fact that the vast majority have benefited and continue to benefit from [ white-passing ] privilege. This ambivalence stems from many different places: a deep connection to a Jewish history of discrimination and otherness; a moral imperative to identify with the stranger; an anti-universalist impulse that does not want Jews to be among the "melted" in the proverbial melting pot; an experience of prejudice and awareness of the contingency of whiteness; a feeling that Jewish identity is not fully described by religion but has some ethnic/tribal component that feels more accurately described by race; and a discomfort with contemporary Jewish power and privilege."
- ↑ "Jews Are a 'Race', Genes Reveal". Entine, Jon. The Jewish Daily Forward. Forward.com. Published May 4, 2012. Accessed December 13, 2015.
- ↑ "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes" M. F. Hammer, A. J. Redd, E. T. Wood, M. R. Bonner, H. Jarjanazi, T. Karafet, S. Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Oppenheim‖, M. A. Jobling, T. Jenkins‡‡, H. Ostrer, and B. Bonné-Tamir§. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Published June 6, 2000. Accessed December 13, 2015.
- ↑ "Public Comments to NCT Federal Register Notice". U.S. Census Bureau; Department of Commerce. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/programs-surveys/decennial/2020-census/2015_census_tests/nct/2015-nct-frn.pdf. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
- ↑ "2015 National Content Test". U.S. Census Bureau. pp. 33–34. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/programs-surveys/decennial/2020-census/2015_census_tests/nct/2015-nct-omb-package.pdf. Retrieved 13 December 2015. "The Census Bureau is undertaking related mid-decade research for coding and classifying detailed national origins and ethnic groups, and our consultations with external experts on the Asian community have also suggested Sikh receive a unique code classified under Asian. The Census Bureau does not currently tabulate on religious responses to the race or ethnic questions (e.g., Sikh, Jewish, Catholic, Muslim, Lutheran, etc.)."
- ↑ "2015 National Content Test". U.S. Census Bureau. p. 60. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/programs-surveys/decennial/2020-census/2015_census_tests/nct/2015-nct-omb-package.pdf. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
- ↑ 105.0 105.1 105.2 "Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000" (XLS). U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/ancestry/ancestry_q_by_DAC_2000.xls. Retrieved December 2, 2010.
- ↑ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported: 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_10_1YR_B04003&prodType=table. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
- ↑ 107.0 107.1 Ira Sheskin; Arnold Dashefsky (2010). "Jewish Population in the United States, 2010" (PDF). Mandell L. Berman Institute North American Jewish Data Bank, Center for Judaic Studies and Contemporary Jewish Life, University of Connecticut. Brandeis University. http://www.brandeis.edu/cmjs/conferences/demographyconf/pdfs/Dashefsky_JewishPopulationUS2010.pdf. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
- ↑ Heather Brown; Emily Guskin; Amy Mitchell (November 28, 2012). "Arab-American Population Growth". Arab-American Media. Pew Research Center. http://www.journalism.org/2012/11/28/arabamerican-population-growth/. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- ↑ "Arab Americans: Demographics". Arab American Institute. 2006. http://www.aaiusa.org/arab-americans/22/demographics. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
- ↑ Gabriel Habib (March 17, 2004). "…And What About Arab Christians?". Al-Hewar Center, Virginia. http://www.alhewar.org/gabriel_habib_What_About_Arab_Christians.htm. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
- ↑ "Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000". U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/ancestry/ancestry_q_by_DAC_2000.xls. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
- ↑ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_10_1YR_B04003&prodType=table. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- ↑ "B04003. TOTAL ANCESTRY REPORTED". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-context=dt&-ds_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G2000_B04003&-tree_id=306&-redoLog=false&-currentselections=ACS_2008_1YR_G2000_B04003&-geo_id=01000US&-search_results=ALL&-format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
- ↑ 114.0 114.1 114.2 114.3 114.4 Tina Norris; Paula L. Vines; Elizabeth M. Hoeffel (January 2012). "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-10.pdf. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ Kathryn Walbert. "American Indian vs. Native American: A note on terminology". Kearn NC. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nc-american-indians/5526. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ Clyde Tucker; Brian Kojetin; Rodrick Harrison (1996). "A Statistical Analysis of the CPS Supplement on Race and Ethnic Origin". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. http://www.census.gov/prod/2/gen/96arc/ivatuck.pdf. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ Axelrod, Alan (2003). The Complete Idiot's Guide to American History. Complete Idiot's Guide to. Penguin. p. 4. ISBN 9780028644646Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=O4w2Vb2JzFUC&lpg=PA3&dq=Chukchi%20people%20first%20americans&pg=PA4#v=onepage&q&f=true. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ Magoc, Chris J. (2011). Chronology of Americans and the Environment. ABC-CLIO. p. 1. ISBN 9781598844115Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=BA_L6AyjsfUC&lpg=PA1&ots=4-J_dD4UmM&dq=Paleoamericans%20migration&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q=Paleoamericans%20migration&f=false. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ Columbus, Christopher; de las Casas, Bartolomé; Dunn, Oliver; Kelley, James Edward (1991). de las Casas, Bartolomé; Dunn, Oliver. eds. The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America, 1492-1493. Volume 70 of American Exploration and Travel Series. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 491. ISBN 9780806123844Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=nS6kRnXJgCEC. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ Rodriguez, Arturo B. (2000). U.S. Citizenship Guidebook. Sinagtala Educational Resources. p. 82. ISBN 9780967989808Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=qrYfS8qCMaoC&lpg=PA82&ots=DdWugLzhUO&dq=St.%20Augustine%20florida%20first%20permanent%20settlement&pg=PA82#v=onepage&q=St.%20Augustine%20florida%20first%20permanent%20settlement&f=false. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ Bianchine, Peter J.; Russo, Thomas A. (1992). "The Role of Epidemic Infectious Diseases in the Discovery of America". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings (OceanSide Publications, Inc) 13 (5): 225–232. doi:10.2500/108854192778817040. PMID 1483570. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ocean/aap/1992/00000013/00000005/art00002. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ Thornton, Russell (1987). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. Volume 186 of Civilization of the American Indian Series. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780806122205Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=9iQYSQ9y60MC&lpg=PA49&ots=IOOuWKdC03&dq=genocide%20warfare%20europeans%20american%20indians&pg=PA49#v=onepage&q=genocide%20warfare%20europeans%20american%20indians&f=false. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ Kessel, William B.; Wooster, Robert (2005). Encyclopedia Of Native American Wars And Warfare. Facts on File library of American History. Infobase Publishing. pp. 398. ISBN 9780816033379Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=laxSyAp89G4C. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ Thornton, Russell (1987). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. Volume 186 of Civilization of the American Indian Series. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 132. ISBN 9780806122205Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=9iQYSQ9y60MC&lpg=PA132&ots=IOOuWKeB03&dq=wars%20between%20different%20indian%20tribes&pg=PA132#v=onepage&q=wars%20between%20different%20indian%20tribes&f=false. Retrieved September 9, 2012. "From whatever cause wars may be brought on, either between different Indian tribes or between indians and whites, they are very destructive, not only of the lives of the warriors engaged in it, but of the women and children also, often becoming a war of extermination."
- ↑ "Early History, Native Americans, and Early Settlers in Mercer County". Mercer County Historical Society. http://www.mchspa.org/body.htm. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ R. David Edmunds (March 14, 2006). "Native American Displacement Amid U.S. Expansion". KERA. Public Broadcasting Service. http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/prelude/md_native_american_displacement.html. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ Blond, Becca; Dunford, Lisa; Schulte-Peevers, Andrea (2008). Southwest USA. Country Regional Guides. Lonely Planet. p. 37. ISBN 9781741047134Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=KlMdC4X9oXAC&lpg=PA37&ots=gI4BBr3s6E&dq=%22internal%20warfare%22%20native%20americans&pg=PA37#v=onepage&q=%22internal%20warfare%22%20native%20americans&f=false. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ Gallay, Alan (2010). Indian Slavery in Colonial America. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 448. ISBN 9780803222007Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=HT69BbA3Is8C. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- ↑ Woods Weierman, Karen (2005). One Nation, One Blood: Interracial Marriage In American Fiction, Scandal, and Law, 1820-1870. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 44. ISBN 9781558494831Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=24mIQuLBuN8C&lpg=PP1&ots=8PasS9avRO&dq=Native%20American%20intermarriage&pg=PA44#v=onepage&q=Native%20American%20intermarriage&f=false. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ Mann, Kaarin (2007). "Interracial Marriage In Early America: Motivation and the Colonial Project". Michigan Journal of History (University of Michigan) (Fall). http://www.umich.edu/~historyj/docs/2007-fall/Interracial_Marriage_in_Early_America_Mann.pdf. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- ↑ "American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month: November 2011". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. November 1, 2011. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/cb11-ff22.html. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ↑ 132.0 132.1 132.2 132.3 132.4 Lindsay Hixson; Bradford B. Hepler; Myoung Ouk Kim (May 2012). "The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population: 2010". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-12.pdf. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- ↑ "Fact Sheet:What You should Know About Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI's)". White House Initiative on Asian Americans & Pacific Islanders (WHIAAPI). United States Department of Education. http://www2.ed.gov/about/inits/list/asian-americans-initiative/what-you-should-know.pdf. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- ↑ 134.0 134.1 134.2 134.3 "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2011". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. April 29, 2011. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/cb11-ff06.html. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- ↑ 135.0 135.1 Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010". 2010 Census Briefs. United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- ↑ Jones, Nicholas A.; Amy Symens Smith. "The Two or More Races Population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-6.pdf. Retrieved May 8, 2008.
- ↑ Ewen MacAskill; Nicholas Watt (May 20, 2011). "Obama looks forward to rediscovering his Irish roots on European tour". The Guardian (London). https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/may/20/obama-irish-roots-european-tour. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ↑ Mason, Jeff (May 23, 2011). "Obama visits family roots in Ireland". Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/23/us-obama-ireland-idUSTRE74M09F20110523. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ↑ Oscar Avila (April 4, 2010). "Obama's census-form choice: 'Black'". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2010/apr/04/nation/la-na-obama-census4-2010apr04. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- ↑ Sam Roberts; Peter Baker (April 2, 2010). "Asked to Declare His Race, Obama Checks 'Black'". New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/03/us/politics/03census.html?_r=0. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- ↑ Nocholas A. Jones; Jungmiwka Bullock (September 2012). "The Two or More Races Population: 2010". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-13.pdf. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
- ↑ Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010
- ↑ "United States". Modern Language Association. http://www.mla.org/map_data. Retrieved September 2, 2013.
- ↑ "Table 53—Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2007". Statistical Abstract of the United States 2010. U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2010/tables/10s0053.pdf. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
- ↑ "Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Learning". MLA. Fall 2002. http://www.adfl.org/resources/enrollments.pdf. Retrieved October 16, 2006.
- ↑ Feder, Jody (January 25, 2007). "English as the Official Language of the United States—Legal Background and Analysis of Legislation in the 110th Congress". Ilw.com (Congressional Research Service). http://www.ilw.com/immigrationdaily/news/2007,0515-crs.pdf. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- ↑ "The Constitution of the State of Hawaii, Article XV, Section 4". Hawaii Legislative Reference Bureau. November 7, 1978. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20070705235552/http://www.hawaii.gov/lrb/con/conart15.html. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- ↑ Dicker, Susan J. (2003). Languages in America: A Pluralist View. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. pp. 216, 220–25. ISBN 1-85359-651-5Script error.
- ↑ "California Code of Civil Procedure, Section 412.20(6)". Legislative Counsel, State of California. http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/displaycode?section=ccp&group=00001-01000&file=412.10-412.30. Retrieved December 17, 2007. "California Judicial Council Forms". Judicial Council, State of California. http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/forms/allforms.htm. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
- ↑ "America's Changing Religious Landscape". The Pew Forum. 2015-05-12. http://www.pewforum.org/2015/05/12/americas-changing-religious-landscape/. Retrieved 2015-05-12.
- ↑ "U.S. Stands Alone in its Embrace of Religion". Pew Global Attitudes Project. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID=167. Retrieved January 1, 2007.
- ↑ Eck, Diana (2002). A New Religious America: the World's Most Religiously Diverse Nation. HarperOne. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-06-062159-9Script error.
- ↑ 153.0 153.1 153.2 153.3 Kosmin, Barry A.; Keysar, Ariela (March 2009). "American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) 2008: Summary Report" (PDF). Hartford, Connecticut, USA: Trinity College. Archived from the original on April 7, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090407053149/http://b27.cc.trincoll.edu/weblogs/AmericanReligionSurvey-ARIS/reports/ARIS_Report_2008.pdf. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
- ↑ "CIA Fact Book". CIA World Fact Book. 2002. Archived from the original on January 9, 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
- ↑ "Religious Composition of the U.S.". U.S. Religious Landscape Survey. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2007. Archived from the original on May 6, 2009. http://religions.pewforum.org/pdf/affiliations-all-traditions.pdf. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- ↑ Newport, Frank (July 28, 2008). "Belief in God Far Lower in Western U.S.". The Gallup Organization. Archived from the original on August 28, 2010. http://www.gallup.com/poll/109108/Belief-God-Far-Lower-Western-US.aspx. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- ↑ Feldman, Noah (2005). Divided by God. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg. 10 ("For the first time in recorded history, they designed a government with no established religion at all.")
- ↑ Marsden, George M. 1990. Religion and American Culture. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp.45–46.
- ↑ Carlos E. Cortés (September 3, 2013). Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. p. 220. ISBN 978-1-4522-7626-7Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=VQ1zAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA220. "The dominance of English and Anglo values in U.S. culture is evident in the country's major institutions, demonstrating the melting pot model."
- ↑ Kirschbaum, Erik (1986). The eradication of German culture in the United States, 1917-1918. H.-D. Heinz. p. 155. ISBN 3-88099-617-2Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=JvUMAQAAMAAJ.
- ↑ Peter J. Parish (January 1997). Reader's Guide to American History. Taylor & Francis. p. 276. ISBN 978-1-884964-22-0Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=DnQTAXf4NuIC&pg=PA276. "However, France was second only to Britain in its influence upon the formation of American politics and culture."
- ↑ Marilyn J. Coleman; Lawrence H. Ganong (16 September 2014). The Social History of the American Family: An Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. p. 775. ISBN 978-1-4522-8615-0Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=R3VpBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA775. "As the communities grew and prospered, Italian food, entertainment, and music influenced American life and culture."
- ↑ 163.0 163.1 "Mr. Jefferson and the giant moose: natural history in early America", Lee Alan Dugatkin. University of Chicago Press, 2009. ISBN 0-226-16914-6Script error, ISBN 978-0-226-16914-9Script error. University of Chicago Press, 2009. Chapter x.
- ↑ M. D. R. Evans; Jonathan Kelley (January 2004). Religion, Morality and Public Policy in International Perspective, 1984-2002. Federation Press. p. 302. ISBN 978-1-86287-451-0Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=QwuLhMDUKdkC&pg=PA302.
- ↑ "America tops in national pride survey finds". NBC News. Associated Press. June 27, 2006. http://www.nbcnews.com/id/13577802/ns/us_news-life/t/america-tops-national-pride-survey-finds/#.VEiGMyLF-8A. Retrieved October 22, 2014.
Elizabeth Theiss-Morse (July 27, 2009). Who Counts as an American?: The Boundaries of National Identity. Cambridge University Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-139-48891-4Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=A2SXphY-DvIC&pg=PA133.
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