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The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these six frames.
This animation moves at 10 frames per second.

Animation is the process of making the illusion of motion and change[Note 1] by means of the rapid display of a sequence of static images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon. Animators are artists who specialize in the creation of animation.

Animation can be recorded with either analogue media, such as a flip book, motion picture film, video tape, or on digital media, including formats such as animated GIF, Flash animation or digital video. To display animation, a digital camera, computer, or projector are used along with new technologies that are produced.

Animation creation methods include the traditional animation creation method and those involving stop motion animation of two and three-dimensional objects, such as paper cutouts, puppets and clay figures. Images are displayed in a rapid succession, usually 24, 25, 30, or 60 frames per second.

History Edit

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File:Phenakistoscope 3g07690u.jpg

Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion into a still drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are often depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion.Script error

An earthen goblet discovered at the site of the 5,200-year-old Shahr-e Sūkhté (Burnt City) in southeastern Iran, depicts what could possibly be the world's oldest example of animation.Script error The artifact bears five sequential images depicting a Persian Desert Ibex jumping up to grab the leaves of a tree.Script error[1]

Ancient Chinese records contain several mentions of devices that were said to "give an impression of movement" to human or animal figures,Script error these accounts are unclear and may only refer to the actual movement of the figures through space.Script error They may, of course, refer to Chinese shadow puppets.

In the 19th century, the phenakistoscope (1832), zoetrope (1834) and praxinoscope (1877) were introduced.Script errorScript error A thaumatrope (1824) is a simple toy with a small disk with different pictures on each side; a bird in a cage and is attached to two pieces of strings.Script error The phenakistoscope was invented simultaneously by Belgian Joseph Plateau and Austrian Simon von Stampfer in 1831.Script error The phenakistoscope consists of a disk with a series of images, drawn on radi evenly space around the center of the disk.Script error

John Barnes Linnett patented the first flip book in 1868 as the kineograph.Script error The common flip book were early animation devices that produced an illusion of movement from a series of sequential drawings, animation did not develop further until the advent of motion picture film and cinematography in the 1890s.Script error

The cinématographe was a projector, printer, and camera in one machine that allowed moving pictures to be shown successfully on a screen which was invented by history's earliest filmmakers, Auguste and Louis Lumière, in 1894.Script error[2] The first animated projection (screening) was created in France, by Charles-Émile Reynaud,Script error who was a French science teacher. Reynaud created the Praxinoscope in 1877 and the Théâtre Optique in December 1888.[3] On 28 October 1892, he projected the first animation in public, Pauvre Pierrot, at the Musée Grévin in Paris.Script error This film is also notable as the first known instance of film perforations being used. His films were not photographed, they were drawn directly onto the transparent strip.Script error In 1900, more than 500,000 people had attended these screenings.

File:Lanature1882 praxinoscope projection reynaud.png

The first film that was recorded on standard picture film and included animated sequences was the 1900 Enchanted Drawing,[4] which was followed by the first entirely animated film - the 1906 Humorous Phases of Funny Faces by J. Stuart Blackton,Script errorScript error who, because of that, is considered the father of American animation.

File:Fantasmagorie (Cohl).GIF
File:Charlie in Turkey Pat Sullivan Keen Cartoon Corporation 1916 685703 FLM11263.ogv

In Europe, the French artist, Émile Cohl, created the first animated film using what came to be known as traditional animation creation methods - the 1908 Fantasmagorie.Script errorScript error The film largely consisted of a stick figure moving about and encountering all manner of morphing objects, a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.[5] There were also sections of live action in which the animator's hands would enter the scene. The film was created by drawing each frame on paper and then shooting each frame onto negative film, which gave the picture a blackboard look.Script error

The author of the first puppet-animated film (The Beautiful Lukanida (1912)) was the Russian-born (ethnically Polish) director Wladyslaw Starewicz, known as Ladislas Starevich.[6]

More detailed hand-drawn animation, requiring a team of animators drawing each frame manually with detailed backgrounds and characters, were those directed by Winsor McCay, a successful newspaper cartoonist, including the 1911 Little Nemo, the 1914 Gertie the Dinosaur,Script error and the 1918 The Sinking of the Lusitania.[7] Gertie the Dinosaur was an early example of the character development in drawn animation.Script error

During the 1910s, the production of animated short films typically referred to as "cartoons", became an industry of its own and cartoon shorts were produced for showing in movie theaters.Script error The most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, who, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process which dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade.Script errorScript error

File:Quirino Cristiani con una figura.jpg

El Apóstol (Spanish: "The Apostle") was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation, and the world's first animated feature film.Script errorScript error Unfortunately, a fire that destroyed producer Federico Valle's film studio incinerated the only known copy of El Apóstol, and it is now considered a lost film.Script errorScript error

In 1958, Hanna-Barbera released Huckleberry Hound, the first half hour television program to feature only in animation. Terrytoons released Tom Terrific that same year.Script errorScript error Television significantly decreased public attention to the animated shorts being shown in theaters.

Computer animation has become popular since Toy Story (1995), the first feature-length animated film completely made using this technique.[8]

In 2008, the animation market was worth US$68.4 billion.[9] Animation as an art and industry continues to thrive as of the mid-2010s because well-made animated projects can find audiences across borders and in all four quadrants. Animated feature-length films returned the highest gross margins (around 52%) of all film genres in the 2004–2013 timeframe.[10]

Techniques Edit

Traditional animation Edit


Traditional animation (also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation) was the process used for most animated films of the 20th century.Script error The individual frames of a traditionally animated film are photographs of drawings, first drawn on paper.Script error To create the illusion of movement, each drawing differs slightly from the one before it. The animators' drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparent acetate sheets called cels,[11] which are filled in with paints in assigned colors or tones on the side opposite the line drawings.[12] The completed character cels are photographed one-by-one against a painted background by a rostrum camera onto motion picture film.Script error

The traditional cel animation process became obsolete by the beginning of the 21st century. Today, animators' drawings and the backgrounds are either scanned into or drawn directly into a computer system.Script error Various software programs are used to color the drawings and simulate camera movement and effects.Script error The final animated piece is output to one of several delivery media, including traditional 35 mm film and newer media with digital video.Script error The "look" of traditional cel animation is still preserved, and the character animators' work has remained essentially the same over the past 70 years.Script error Some animation producers have used the term "tradigital" (a play on the words "traditional" and "digital") to describe cel animation which makes extensive use of computer technologies.

Examples of traditionally animated feature films include Pinocchio (United States, 1940),[13] Animal Farm (United Kingdom, 1954), and The Illusionist (British-French, 2010). Traditionally animated films which were produced with the aid of computer technology include The Lion King (US, 1994), The Prince of Egypt (US, 1998), Akira (Japan, 1988),Script error Spirited Away (Japan, 2001), The Triplets of Belleville (France, 2003), and The Secret of Kells (Irish-French-Belgian, 2009).

  • Full animation refers to the process of producing high-quality traditionally animated films that regularly use detailed drawings and plausible movement,Script error having a smooth animation.Script error Fully animated films can be made in a variety of styles, from more realistically animated works those produced by the Walt Disney studio (The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, The Lion King) to the more 'cartoon' styles of the Warner Bros. animation studio. Many of the Disney animated features are examples of full animation, as are non-Disney works, The Secret of NIMH (US, 1982), The Iron Giant (US, 1999), and Nocturna (Spain, 2007). Fully animated films are animated at 24 frames per second, with a combination of animation on ones and twos, meaning that drawings can be held for one frame out of 24 or two frames out of 24.Script error
  • Limited animation involves the use of less detailed or more stylized drawings and methods of movement usually a choppy or "skippy" movement animation.Script error Limited animation uses fewer drawings per second, thereby limiting the fluidity of the animation. This is a more economic technique. Pioneered by the artists at the American studio United Productions of America,Script error limited animation can be used as a method of stylized artistic expression, as in Gerald McBoing-Boing (US, 1951), Yellow Submarine (UK, 1968), and certain anime produced in Japan.Script error Its primary use, however, has been in producing cost-effective animated content for media for television (the work of Hanna-Barbera,Script error Filmation,Script error and other TV animation studiosScript error) and later the Internet (web cartoons).
  • Rotoscoping is a technique patented by Max Fleischer in 1917 where animators trace live-action movement, frame by frame.Script error The source film can be directly copied from actors' outlines into animated drawings,[14] as in The Lord of the Rings (US, 1978), or used in a stylized and expressive manner, as in Waking Life (US, 2001) and A Scanner Darkly (US, 2006). Some other examples are Fire and Ice (US, 1983), Heavy Metal (1981), and Aku no Hana (2013).
  • Live-action/animation is a technique combining hand-drawn characters into live action shots or live action actors into animated shots.[15] One of the earlier uses was in Koko the Clown when Koko was drawn over live action footage.Script error Other examples include Who Framed Roger Rabbit (US, 1988), Space Jam (US, 1996) and Osmosis Jones (US, 2001).

Stop motion animation Edit

Stop-motion animation is used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement.Script error There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the medium used to create the animation.[16] Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation; however, traditional stop motion animation is usually less expensive and time-consuming to produce than current computer animation.[16]

  • Puppet animation typically involves stop-motion puppet figures interacting in a constructed environment, in contrast to real-world interaction in model animation.[17] The puppets generally have an armature inside of them to keep them still and steady to constrain their motion to particular joints.[18] Examples include The Tale of the Fox (France, 1937), The Nightmare Before Christmas (US, 1993), Corpse Bride (US, 2005), Coraline (US, 2009), the films of Jiří Trnka and the adult animated sketch-comedy television series Robot Chicken (US, 2005–present).
    • Puppetoon, created using techniques developed by George Pal,Script error are puppet-animated films which typically use a different version of a puppet for different frames, rather than simply manipulating one existing puppet.Script error
  • Clay animation, or Plasticine animation (often called claymation, which, however, is a trademarked name), uses figures made of clay or a similar malleable material to create stop-motion animation.Script error[19] The figures may have an armature or wire frame inside, similar to the related puppet animation (below), that can be manipulated to pose the figures.[20] Alternatively, the figures may be made entirely of clay, in the films of Bruce Bickford, where clay creatures morph into a variety of different shapes. Examples of clay-animated works include The Gumby Show (US, 1957–1967) Morph shorts (UK, 1977–2000), Wallace and Gromit shorts (UK, as of 1989), Jan Švankmajer's Dimensions of Dialogue (Czechoslovakia, 1982), The Trap Door (UK, 1984). Films include Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit, Chicken Run and The Adventures of Mark Twain.Script error
    • Strata-cut animation, Strata-cut animation is most commonly a form of clay animation in which a long bread-like "loaf" of clay, internally packed tight and loaded with varying imagery, is sliced into thin sheets, with the animation camera taking a frame of the end of the loaf for each cut, eventually revealing the movement of the internal images within.Script error
  • Cutout animation is a type of stop-motion animation produced by moving two-dimensional pieces of material paper or cloth.Script error Examples include Terry Gilliam's animated sequences from Monty Python's Flying Circus (UK, 1969–1974); Fantastic Planet (France/Czechoslovakia, 1973) ; Tale of Tales (Russia, 1979), The pilot episode of the adult television sitcom series (and sometimes in episodes) of South Park (US, 1997) and the music video Live for the moment, from Verona Riots band (produced by Alberto Serrano and Nívola Uyá, Spain 2014).
  • Model animation refers to stop-motion animation created to interact with and exist as a part of a live-action world.[21] Intercutting, matte effects and split screens are often employed to blend stop-motion characters or objects with live actors and settings.[22] Examples include the work of Ray Harryhausen, as seen in films, Jason and the Argonauts (1963),[23] and the work of Willis H. O'Brien on films, King Kong (1933).
  • Object animation refers to the use of regular inanimate objects in stop-motion animation, as opposed to specially created items.Script error
    • Graphic animation uses non-drawn flat visual graphic material (photographs, newspaper clippings, magazines, etc.), which are sometimes manipulated frame-by-frame to create movement.Script error At other times, the graphics remain stationary, while the stop-motion camera is moved to create on-screen action.
    • Brickfilm are a subgenre of object animation involving using Lego or other similar brick toys to make an animation.Script errorScript error These have had a recent boost in popularity with the advent of video sharing sites, YouTube and the availability of cheap cameras and animation software.Script error
  • Pixilation involves the use of live humans as stop motion characters.[24] This allows for a number of surreal effects, including disappearances and reappearances, allowing people to appear to slide across the ground, and other effects.[24] Examples of pixilation include The Secret Adventures of Tom Thumb and Angry Kid shorts.

Computer animation Edit

Computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques, the unifying factor being that the animation is created digitally on a computer.Script errorScript error 2D animation techniques tend to focus on image manipulation while 3D techniques usually build virtual worlds in which characters and objects move and interact.[25] 3D animation can create images that seem real to the viewer.

2D animation Edit

File:Catenary animation.gif

2D animation figures are created or edited on the computer using 2D bitmap graphics or created and edited using 2D vector graphics.[26] This includes automated computerized versions of traditional animation techniques, interpolated morphing, onion skinning[27] and interpolated rotoscoping.

2D animation has many applications, including analog computer animation, Flash animation, and PowerPoint animation. Cinemagraphs are still photographs in the form of an animated GIF file of which part is animated.Script error

Final line advection animation is a technique used in 2D animation,Script error to give artists and animators more influence and control over the final product as everything is done within the same department.[28] Speaking about using this approach in Paperman, John Kahrs said that "Our animators can change things, actually erase away the CG underlayer if they want, and change the profile of the arm."Script error

3D animation Edit

3D animation is digitally modeled and manipulated by an animator. The animator usually starts by creating a 3D polygon mesh to manipulate.[29] A mesh typically includes many vertices that are connected by edges and faces, which give the visual appearance of form to a 3D object or 3D environment.[29] Sometimes, the mesh is given an internal digital skeletal structure called an armature that can be used to control the mesh by weighting the vertices.Script error This process is called rigging and can be used in conjunction with keyframes to create movement.

Other techniques can be applied, mathematical functions (e.g., gravity, particle simulations), simulated fur or hair, and effects, fire and water simulations.Script error These techniques fall under the category of 3D dynamics.Script error

3D terms Edit

Mechanical animation Edit

  • Animatronics is the use of mechatronics to create machines which seem animate rather than robotic.
    • Audio-Animatronics and Autonomatronics is a form of robotics animation, combined with 3-D animation, created by Walt Disney Imagineering for shows and attractions at Disney theme parks move and make noise (generally a recorded speech or song).Script error They are fixed to whatever supports them. They can sit and stand, and they cannot walk. An Audio-Animatron is different from an android-type robot in that it uses prerecorded movements and sounds, rather than responding to external stimuli. In 2009, Disney created an interactive version of the technology called Autonomatronics.Script error
    • Linear Animation Generator is a form of animation by using static picture frames installed in a tunnel or a shaft. The animation illusion is created by putting the viewer in a linear motion, parallel to the installed picture frames.Script error The concept and the technical solution were invented in 2007 by Mihai Girlovan in Romania.
  • Chuckimation is a type of animation created by the makers of the television series Action League Now! in which characters/props are thrown, or chucked from off camera or wiggled around to simulate talking by unseen hands.Script error
  • Puppetry is a form of theatre or performance animation that involves the manipulation of puppets. It is very ancient and is believed to have originated 3000 years BC. Puppetry takes many forms, they all share the process of animating inanimate performing objects. Puppetry is used in almost all human societies both as entertainment – in performance – and ceremonially in rituals, celebrations, and carnivals. Most puppetry involves storytelling.
File:Toy Story Zoetrope, Disney California Adventure 2.jpg
  • Zoetrope is a device that produces the illusion of motion from a rapid succession of static pictures.Script errorScript error The term zoetrope is from the Greek words ζωή (zoē), meaning "alive, active", and τρόπος (tropos), meaning "turn", with "zoetrope" taken to mean "active turn" or "wheel of life".Script error

Other animation styles, techniques, and approaches Edit

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  • Hydrotechnics: a technique that includes lights, water, fire, fog, and lasers, with high-definition projections on mist screens.
  • Drawn on film animation: a technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on film stock, for example by Norman McLaren,[32] Len Lye and Stan Brakhage.
  • Paint-on-glass animation: a technique for making animated films by manipulating slow drying oil paints on sheets of glass,Script error for example by Aleksandr Petrov.
  • Erasure animation: a technique using traditional 2D media, photographed over time as the artist manipulates the image. For example, William Kentridge is famous for his charcoal erasure films,Script error and Piotr Dumała for his auteur technique of animating scratches on plaster.
  • Pinscreen animation: makes use of a screen filled with movable pins that can be moved in or out by pressing an object onto the screen.Script error The screen is lit from the side so that the pins cast shadows. The technique has been used to create animated films with a range of textural effects difficult to achieve with traditional cel animation.Script error
  • Sand animation: sand is moved around on a back- or front-lighted piece of glass to create each frame for an animated film.Script error This creates an interesting effect when animated because of the light contrast.Script error
  • Flip book: a flip book (sometimes, especially in British English, called a flick book) is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change.[33]Script error Flip books are often illustrated books for children, they also be geared towards adults and employ a series of photographs rather than drawings. Flip books are not always separate books, they appear as an added feature in ordinary books or magazines, often in the page corners.[33] Software packages and websites are also available that convert digital video files into custom-made flip books.Script error
  • Character animation
  • Multi-sketching
  • Special effects animation


The creation of non-trivial animation works (i.e., longer than a few seconds) has developed as a form of filmmaking, with certain unique aspects.Script error One thing live-action and animated feature-length films do have in common is that they are both extremely labor-intensive and have high production costs.[34]

The most important difference is that once a film is in the production phase, the marginal cost of one more shot is higher for animated films than live-action films.Script error It is relatively easy for a director to ask for one more take during principal photography of a live-action film, but every take on an animated film must be manually rendered by animators (although the task of rendering slightly different takes has been made less tedious by modern computer animation).Script error It is pointless for a studio to pay the salaries of dozens of animators to spend weeks creating a visually dazzling five-minute scene if that scene fails to effectively advance the plot of the film.Script error Thus, animation studios starting with Disney began the practice in the 1930s of maintaining story departments where storyboard artists develop every single scene through storyboards, then handing the film over to the animators only after the production team is satisfied that all the scenes will make sense as a whole.[35] While live-action films are now also storyboarded, they enjoy more latitude to depart from storyboards (i.e., real-time improvisation).Script error

Another problem unique to animation is the necessity of ensuring that the style of an animated film is consistent from start to finish, even as films have grown longer and teams have grown larger. Animators, like all artists, necessarily have their own individual styles, but must subordinate their individuality in a consistent way to whatever style was selected for a particular film.[36] Since the early 1980s, feature-length animated films have been created by teams of about 500 to 600 people, of whom 50 to 70 are animators. It is relatively easy for two or three artists to match each other's styles; it is harder to keep dozens of artists synchronized with one another.Script error

This problem is usually solved by having a separate group of visual development artists develop an overall look and palette for each film before animation begins. Character designers on the visual development team draw model sheets to show how each character should look like with different facial expressions, posed in different positions, and viewed from different angles.Script error[37] On traditionally animated projects, maquettes were often sculpted to further help the animators see how characters would look from different angles.Script errorScript error

Unlike live-action films, animated films were traditionally developed beyond the synopsis stage through the storyboard format; the storyboard artists would then receive credit for writing the film.Script error In the early 1960s, animation studios began hiring professional screenwriters to write screenplays (while also continuing to use story departments) and screenplays had become commonplace for animated films by the late 1980s.


Criticism of animation has been common in media and cinema since its inception. With its popularity, a large amount of criticism has arisen, especially animated feature-length films.Script error Many concerns of cultural representation, psychological effects on children have been brought up around the animation industry, which has remained rather politically unchanged and stagnant since its inception into mainstream culture.[38]

Certain under-representation of women has been criticized in animation films and the industry.[38][39]


As with any other form of media, animation too has instituted awards for excellence in the field. The original awards for animation were presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for animated shorts from the year 1932, during the 5th Academy Awards function. The first winner of the Academy Award was the short Flowers and Trees,Script error a production by Walt Disney Productions.Script errorScript error The Academy Award for a feature-length animated motion picture was only instituted for the year 2001, and awarded during the 74th Academy Awards in 2002. It was won by the film Shrek, produced by DreamWorks and Pacific Data Images.Script error Disney/Pixar have produced the most films either to win or be nominated for the award. The list of both awards can be obtained here:

Several other countries have instituted an award for best animated feature film as part of their national film awards: Africa Movie Academy Award for Best Animation (since 2008), BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film (since 2006), César Award for Best Animated Film (since 2011), Golden Rooster Award for Best Animation (since 1981), Goya Award for Best Animated Film (since 1989), Japan Academy Prize for Animation of the Year (since 2007), National Film Award for Best Animated Film (since 2006). Also since 2007, the Asia Pacific Screen Award for Best Animated Feature Film has been awarded at the Asia Pacific Screen Awards. Since 2009, the European Film Awards have awarded the European Film Award for Best Animated Film.

The Annie Award is another award presented for excellence in the field of animation. Unlike the Academy Awards, the Annie Awards are only received for achievements in the field of animation and not for any other field of technical and artistic endeavor. They were re-organized in 1992 to create a new field for Best Animated feature. The 1990s winners were dominated by Walt Disney, however, newer studios, led by Pixar & DreamWorks, have now begun to consistently vie for this award. The list of awardees is as follows:

See also Edit

Notes Edit

  1. "World's Oldest Animation?". The Heritage Trust. 
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named UCLA
  3. Beckerman 2003, pp. 7–9; Bendazzi 1994, pp. 3–4; Solomon 1989, pp. 8–10.
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Solomon12.E2.80.9313
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Harryhausen_Dalton42
  6. "Władysław Starewicz - Biography". Adam Mickiewicz Institute. Retrieved 2016-02-09. 
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Solomon14-19
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Masson432
  9. "Animation". Board of Investments. November 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  10. McDuling, John (3 July 2014). "Hollywood Is Giving Up on Comedy". The Atlantic (The Atlantic Monthly Group). Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  11. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Thomas-Johnston277.E2.80.93279
  12. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Laybourne203
  13. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Solomon63.E2.80.9365
  14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Laybourne163.E2.80.93164
  15. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Laybourne162.E2.80.93164
  16. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Laybourne159
  17. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Solomon171
  18. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Laybourne155.E2.80.93156
  19. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Laybourne150.E2.80.93151
  20. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Laybourne151.E2.80.93154
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  23. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Harryhausen_Dalton18
  24. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Laybourne75.E2.80.9379
  25. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Masson405
  26. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Masson165
  27. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Priebe71.E2.80.9372
  28. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Masson127.E2.80.93128
  29. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Masson88
  30. "Cel Shading: the Unsung Hero of Animation?". Animator Mag. Retrieved 20 February 2016. 
  31. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Masson204
  32. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Faber1979
  33. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Laybourne22-24
  34. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Solomon274
  35. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Solomon120
  36. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Masson94
  37. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Culhane146
  38. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Nagel
  39. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Zohn

References Edit


Bibliography Edit


Online Edit


External links Edit

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