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Paul David Hewson (born 10 May 1960), known by his stage name Bono (English pronunciation: /ˈ/ (13px listen)), is an Irish singer-songwriter, musician, venture capitalist, businessman, and philanthropist. He is best known as the lead vocalist and primary lyricist of rock band U2.
Bono was born and raised in Dublin, Ireland. He attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School where he met his future wife, Alison Stewart, as well as schoolmates with whom he founded U2. Bono soon established himself as a passionate frontman for the band through his expressive vocal style and grandiose gestures and songwriting. His lyrics are known for their social and political themes, and for their religious imagery inspired by his Christian beliefs. During U2's early years, Bono's lyrics contributed to the group's rebellious and spiritual tone. As the band matured, his lyrics became inspired more by personal experiences shared with the other members. As a member of U2, Bono has received 22 Grammy Awards and has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
Bono is widely known for his activism for social justice causes, both through U2 and as an individual. He is particularly active in campaigning for Africa, for which he co-founded DATA, EDUN, the ONE Campaign, and Product Red. In pursuit of these causes, he has participated in benefit concerts and met with influential politicians. Bono has been praised for his activism and involvement with U2. He was granted an honorary knighthood by Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom for "his services to the music industry and for his humanitarian work", and has been made a Commandeur of the French Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (Order of Arts and Letters). In 2005, Bono was named one of the Time Persons of the Year.
Outside of the band, he has recorded with numerous artists. He has collaborated with U2 bandmate the Edge on several projects, including songs for Roy Orbison and Tina Turner, the soundtracks to the musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark and a London stage adaptation of A Clockwork Orange, and the refurbishment of the Clarence Hotel in Dublin. He is Managing Director and a Managing Partner of the private equity firm Elevation Partners, which has invested in several companies.
Bono was born in the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, on 10 May 1960. He was raised in the Northside suburb of Finglas with his brother (who is eight years older than Bono) by their mother, Iris (née Rankin), a member of the Church of Ireland, and their father, Brendan Robert "Bob" Hewson, a Roman Catholic. His parents initially agreed that the first child would be raised Anglican and the second Catholic. Although Bono was the second child, he also attended Church of Ireland services with his mother and brother.
He went to the local primary Glasnevin National School. Bono's mother died on 10 September 1974, after suffering a cerebral aneurysm at her father's funeral. Many U2 songs, including "I Will Follow", "Mofo", "Out of Control", "Lemon" and "Tomorrow" focus on the loss of his mother.
Bono attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School, a multi-denominational school in Clontarf. During his childhood and adolescence, Bono and his friends were part of a surrealist street gang called "Lypton Village". Bono met one of his closest friends, Guggi, in Lypton Village. The gang had a ritual of nickname-giving. Bono had several names: first, he was "Steinhegvanhuysenolegbangbangbang", then just "Huyseman", followed by "Houseman", "Bon Murray", "Bono Vox of O'Connell Street", and finally just "Bono". "Bono Vox" is an alteration of Bonavox, a Latin phrase which translates to "good voice". It is said he was nicknamed "Bono Vox" by his friend Gavin Friday. He initially disliked the name; however, when he learned it translated to "good voice", he accepted it. Hewson has been known as "Bono" since the late 1970s. Although he uses Bono as his stage name, close family and friends also refer to him as Bono, including fellow band members.
After he left school, his father Bob Hewson, told him he could live at home for one year but if he was not able to pay his own way, he would have to leave the house.
Bono is married to Alison Hewson (née Stewart). The couple have four children: daughters Jordan (born 10 May 1989) and Memphis Eve (7 July 1991) and sons Elijah Bob Patricius Guggi Q (17 August 1999) and John Abraham (20 May 2001).
[I have] very sensitive eyes to light. If somebody takes my photograph, I will see the flash for the rest of the day. My right eye swells up. I've a blockage there, so that my eyes go red a lot. So it's part vanity, it's part privacy and part sensitivity.
In the late 1980s or early 90s, Bono bought a top-floor duplex apartment in Manhattan's San Remo apartment building from Steve Jobs for $15 million. Jobs had renovated it for his own use, but never moved in. In 2002, he was listed as one of the 100 Greatest Britons in a poll conducted among the general public, despite the fact he is Irish. In 2004, Bono was given an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from the University of Pennsylvania.
In May 2010, Bono suffered a spinal injury while preparing for a U2 tour, and was taken to a German clinic in Munich for emergency neurosurgery. The North American leg of the tour was postponed and rescheduled for 2011.
Bono was named one of the 17 Irish artists to be proud of by the Irish Post on 9 April 2013. Time magazine ranked him at the 8th place on its list of the "Most Influential Celebrities" in 2013; he was the only person from the music industry in the Top 10.
Bono's work as an activist, which is due largely to his Christian beliefs, began in earnest when, inspired by Live Aid, he travelled to Ethiopia to work in a feeding camp with his wife Alison and the charity World Vision, an Evangelical Christian humanitarian aid, development, and advocacy organisation. With regard to Bono's 2013 declarations in interviews published and videotaped of his faith in Jesus Christ, he states that Christ was either who he said he was, or he is "a complete and utter nutcase". As early as 2005, Bono was invoking this argument, identified as the "Lewis trilemma".
On 16 November 2014, Bono was involved in a "high energy bicycle accident" when he attempted to avoid another rider. Bono was rushed to NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center's Emergency Department and underwent "multiple X-rays and CAT scans" followed by five hours of surgery. Bono suffered fractures of the shoulder blade, humerus, orbit and pinky finger. Orthopedic trauma surgeon Dean Lorich, MD, stated that "[Bono] was taken urgently to the operating room... where the elbow was washed out and debrided, a nerve trapped in the break was moved and the bone was repaired with three metal plates and 18 screws." Bono posted to U2's official website, "As I write this, it is not clear that I will ever play guitar again," as reported in Cycling Weekly.
On 25 September 1976, Bono, David Evans ("The Edge"), his brother Dik and Adam Clayton responded to an advertisement on a bulletin board at Mount Temple posted by fellow student Larry Mullen Jr. to form a rock band. The band had occasional jam sessions in which they did covers of other bands. Tired of long guitar solos and hard rock, Bono wanted to play The Rolling Stones and Beach Boys songs. The band could not play covers very well, so they started writing their own songs.
The band went by the name "Feedback" for a few months, before changing to "The Hype" later on. After Dik Evans left the group to join another local band, the Virgin Prunes, the remaining four officially changed the name from "The Hype" to "U2". Initially Bono sang, played guitar and wrote the band's songs. He said of his early guitar playing in a 1982 interview, "When we started out I was the guitar player, along with the Edge—except I couldn't play guitar. I still can't. I was such a lousy guitar player that one day they broke it to me that maybe I should sing instead. I had tried before, but I had no voice at all. I remember the day I found I could sing. I said, 'Oh, that's how you do it.'" When The Edge's guitar playing improved, Bono was relegated mostly to the microphone, although he occasionally still plays rhythm guitar and harmonica. As of 2006, Bono has taken piano lessons from his children's piano teacher as a means to improve his songwriting.
Bono writes the lyrics for almost all U2 songs, which are often have social and political themes. His lyrics frequently allude to a religious connection or meaning, evident in songs such as "Gloria" from the band's album October and "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For" from The Joshua Tree. During the band's early years, Bono was known for his rebellious tone which turned to political anger and rage during the band's War, The Joshua Tree and Rattle and Hum eras. Following the Enniskillen bombing that left 11 dead and 63 injured on 8 November 1987, the Provisional IRA paramilitaries threatened to kidnap Bono. IRA supporters also attacked a vehicle carrying the band members. These acts were in response to his speech condemning the Enniskillen bombing during a live performance of "Sunday Bloody Sunday". The singer had been advised to cut his on-stage outburst from the Rattle and Hum film, but it was left in. Also featured in the film is footage of Bono spray-painting a monument during an outdoor performance; Bono was forced to pay a fine.
U2's sound and focus dramatically changed with their 1991 album, Achtung Baby. Bono's lyrics became more personal, inspired by experiences related to the private lives of the members of the band. During the band's Zoo TV Tour several of his stage personas were showcased; these included "The Fly", a stereotypical rock star, the "Mirror Ball Man", a parody of American televangelists, and "Mr. MacPhisto", a combination of a corrupted rock star and the Devil.
During performances he attempts to interact with the crowd as often as possible and is known for pulling audience members onto the stage or moving himself down to the physical level of the audience. This has happened on several occasions including at the Live Aid concert in 1985 where he leapt off the stage and pulled a woman from the crowd to dance with her as the band played "Bad", and in 2005 during U2's Vertigo Tour stop in Chicago, where he pulled a boy onto the stage during the song "An Cat Dubh / Into the Heart". Bono has often allowed fans to come on stage and perform songs with the band.
Bono has won numerous awards with U2, including 22 Grammy awards and the 2003 Golden Globe award for best original song, "The Hands That Built America", for the film Gangs of New York. During the live broadcast of the Golden Globe ceremony, Bono called the award "really, really fucking brilliant!". In response, the Parents Television Council condemned Bono for his profanity and started a campaign for its members to file complaints with the FCC. Although Bono's use of "fuck" violated FCC indecency standards, the FCC refused to fine NBC because the network did not receive advance notice of the consequences of broadcasting such profanity and the profanity in question was not used in its literal sexual meaning. In apparent reaction to the refusal, a group of congressmen introduced House Resolution 3687, the "Clean Airwaves Act", on 8 December 2003, aiming to amend section 1464 of title 18 of the United States Code to provide an explicit list of profane words and phrases and remove ambiguity that could enable certain uses of the phrases to be allowed. The bill was not enacted. The incident has had a long-term impact in the handling of profanity on live broadcasts.
In 2005, the U2 band members were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in their first year of eligibility. In November 2008, Rolling Stone ranked Bono the 32nd-greatest singer of all time.
U2 were criticised in 2007 for moving part of their multimillion-euro song catalogue from Ireland to Amsterdam six months before Ireland ended a tax exemption on musicians' royalties. Under Dutch tax law, bands are subject to low to non-existent tax rates. U2's manager, Paul McGuinness, stated that the arrangement is legal and customary and businesses often seek to minimise their tax burdens. The move prompted criticisms in the Irish parliament. The band later responded by stating that approximately 95% of their business took place outside Ireland, and that they were taxed globally because of this. Bono was one of several wealthy figures whose tax arrangements were singled out for criticism in a report by the charity Christian Aid in 2008.
In addition to his work with U2, he has collaborated with Frank Sinatra, Johnny Cash, Willie Nelson, Luciano Pavarotti, Sinéad O'Connor, Green Day, Tom Petty, Roy Orbison, Bob Dylan, Patti Smith, Tina Turner, B.B. King and Zucchero. He has recorded with Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Kirk Franklin, Bruce Springsteen, Tony Bennett, Clannad, The Corrs, Wyclef Jean, Kylie Minogue, Carl Perkins, Herbert Grönemeyer, Jay-Z and Rihanna, as well as reportedly completing an unreleased duet with Jennifer Lopez. On Robbie Robertson's 1987 eponymous album, he plays bass guitar and vocals. On Michael Hutchence's 1999 posthumous eponymous album, Bono completed a recording of "Slide Away" as a duet with Hutchence. Bono recently collaborated with African stars like D'banj, Waje and Omotola Jalade Ekeinde for the women empowerment song titled "Strong Girl".
Bono and The Edge also wrote the music and lyrics for the Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark. On 25 May 2011, a single titled "Rise Above 1" by Reeve Carney featuring Bono and The Edge was released digitally. The music video was released on 28 July 2011.
Bono has become one of the world's best-known philanthropic performers and was named the most politically effective celebrity of all time by the National Journal. He has been dubbed, "the face of fusion philanthropy", both for his success enlisting powerful allies from a diverse spectrum of leaders in government, religious institutions, philanthropic organisations, popular media, and the business world, as well as for spearheading new organizational networks that bind global humanitarian relief with geopolitical activism and corporate commercial enterprise.
In a 1986 interview with Rolling Stone magazine, Bono explained that he was motivated to become involved in social and political causes by seeing one of the Secret Policeman's Ball benefit shows, staged by John Cleese and producer Martin Lewis for the human-rights organisation Amnesty International in 1979. "I saw 'The Secret Policeman's Ball' and it became a part of me. It sowed a seed...". In 2001, Bono arranged for U2 to videotape a special live performance for that year's Amnesty benefit show.
In 1984, Bono sang on the Band Aid single "Do They Know it's Christmas?/Feed the World" (a role that was reprised on the 2004 Band Aid 20 and 2014 Band Aid 30 singles of the same name). Bob Geldof and Bono later collaborated to organise the 2005 Live 8 project, where U2 also performed. Bono and U2 performed on Amnesty's Conspiracy of Hope tour of the United States in 1986 alongside Sting. U2 also performed in the Band Aid and Live Aid projects, organised by Geldof.
Since 1999, Bono has become increasingly involved in campaigning for third-world debt relief and raising awareness of the plight of Africa, including the AIDS pandemic. In the past decade Bono has met with several influential politicians, including former United States President George W. Bush and former Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin. During a March 2002 visit to the White House, after President Bush unveiled a $5 billion aid package, he accompanied the President for a speech on the White House lawn where he stated, "This is an important first step, and a serious and impressive new level of commitment. (...) This must happen urgently, because this is a crisis." In May of that year, Bono took US Treasury Secretary Paul H. O'Neill on a four-country tour of Africa. In contrast, in 2005, Bono spoke on CBC Radio, alleging then Prime Minister Martin was being slow about increasing Canada's foreign aid.
In 2004, he was awarded the Pablo Neruda International Presidential Medal of Honour from the Government of Chile. Time Magazine named Bono one of the "100 Most Influential People" in its May 2004 special issue and again in the 2006 Time 100 special issue. In 2005, Time, named Bono, with Bill and Melinda Gates, a Person of the Year. Also in 2005, he received the Portuguese Order of Liberty for his humanitarian work. That year Bono was also among the first three recipients of the TED Prize, which grants each winner "A wish to change the world". Bono made three wishes, the first two related to the ONE campaign and the third that every hospital, health clinic and school in Ethiopia should be connected to the Internet. TED rejected the third wish as being a sub-optimal way for TED to help Africa and instead organised a TED conference in Arusha, Tanzania. Bono attended the conference, which was held in June 2007.
In 2005 he recorded a version of "Don't Give Up" with Alicia Keys, with proceeds going to Keep a Child Alive. On 3 April 2005, Bono paid a personal tribute to John Paul II and called him "a street fighter and a wily campaigner on behalf of the world's poor. We would never have gotten the debts of 23 countries completely cancelled without him." Bono spoke in advance of President Bush at the 54th Annual National Prayer Breakfast, held at the Hilton Washington Hotel on 2 February 2006. In a speech containing biblical references, Bono encouraged the care of the socially and economically depressed. His comments included a call for an extra one percent tithe of the United States' national budget. He brought his Christian views into harmony with other faiths by noting that Christian, Jewish, and Muslim writings all call for the care of the widow, orphan, and stranger. President Bush received praise from the singer-activist for the United States' increase in aid for the African continent. Bono continued by saying much work is left to be done to be a part of God's ongoing purposes.
Also in 2005, Bono, Ali Hewson and designer Rogan Gregory co-founded the EDUN fashion label ("nude" spelled backwards, to suggest both "natural" and the Garden of Eden). It was intended to help bring about positive change in Africa through a fair trade-based relationship rather than by direct aid.
On 15 December 2005, Paul Theroux published an op-ed in The New York Times called The Rock Star's Burden (cf. Kipling's The White Man's Burden) that criticised stars such as Bono, Brad Pitt, and Angelina Jolie, labelling them as "mythomaniacs, people who wish to convince the world of their worth." Theroux, who lived in Africa as a Peace Corps Volunteer, added that "the impression that Africa is fatally troubled and can be saved only by outside help—not to mention celebrities and charity concerts—is a destructive and misleading conceit." Elsewhere, Bono has been criticised, along with other celebrities, for "[ignoring] the legitimate voices of Africa and [turning] a global movement for justice into a grand orgy of narcissistic philanthropy".
In 2007, Bono was named in the UK's New Years Honours List as an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire. He was formally granted knighthood on 29 March 2007 in a ceremony at the residence of British Ambassador David Reddaway in Dublin, Ireland.
Bono also received the NAACP Image Award's chairman's Award in 2007. On 24 May 2007, the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia announced that Bono would receive the Philadelphia Liberty Medal on 27 September 2007 for his work to end world poverty and hunger. On 28 September 2007, in accepting the Liberty Medal, Bono said, "When you are trapped by poverty, you are not free. When trade laws prevent you from selling the food you grew, you are not free ... When you are a monk in Burma this very week, barred from entering a temple because of your gospel of peace ... well, then none of us are truly free". Bono donated the $100,000 prize to the organisation. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala accepted the award for the Washington-based Debt AIDS Trade Africa.
The organisation DATA (Debt, AIDS, Trade, Africa) was established in 2002 by Bono and Bobby Shriver, along with activists from the Jubilee 2000 Drop the Debt Campaign. DATA aims to eradicate poverty and HIV/AIDS in Africa. DATA encourages Americans to contact senators and other legislators and elected officials to voice their opinions.
Bono was a special guest editor of the July 2007 issue of Vanity Fair magazine. The issue was named "The Africa Issue: Politics & Power" and featured an assortment of 20 different covers, with photographs by Annie Leibovitz of a number of prominent celebrities, political leaders, and philanthropists. Each one showcased in the issue for their contributions to the humanitarian relief in Africa.
In an article in Bloomberg Markets in March 2007, journalists Richard Tomlinson and Fergal O'Brien noted that Bono used his band's 2006 Vertigo world tour to promote his ONE Campaign while at the same time "U2 was racking up $389 million in gross ticket receipts, making Vertigo the second-most lucrative tour of all time, according to Billboard magazine ... Revenue from the Vertigo tour is funnelled through companies that are mostly registered in Ireland and structured to minimise taxes."
Further criticism came in November 2007, when Bono's various charity campaigns were targeted by Jobs Selasie, head of African Aid Action. Selasie claimed that these charities had increased corruption and dependency in Africa because they failed to work with African entrepreneurs and grassroots organisations, and as a result, Africa has become more dependent on international handouts. Bono responded to his critics in Times Online on 19 February 2006, calling them "cranks carping from the sidelines. A lot of them wouldn't know what to do if they were on the field. They're the party who will always be in opposition so they'll never have to take responsibility for decisions because they know they'll never be able to implement them."
In November 2007, Bono was honoured by NBC Nightly News as someone "making a difference" in the world. He and anchor Brian Williams had travelled to Africa in May 2007 to showcase the humanitarian crisis on the continent. On 11 December 2008, Bono was given the annual Man of Peace prize, awarded by several Nobel Peace Prize laureates in Paris, France.
Product Red is another initiative begun by Bono and Bobby Shriver to raise money for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. Bobby Shriver has been announced as the CEO of Product Red, while Bono is currently an active public spokesperson for the brand. Product Red is a brand that is licensed to partner companies, such as American Express, Apple, Converse, Motorola, Microsoft, Dell, The Gap and Giorgio Armani. Each company creates a product with the Product Red logo and a percentage of the profits from the sale of these labelled products will go to the Global Fund.
In 2016, Glamour named him "Man of the Year", breaking the 26-year tradition that saw the "Woman of the Year" accolade reserved only for women. Bono was recognized for establishing a campaign called "Poverty is Sexist," which is "specifically aimed at helping the world's poorest women".
In 1992, Bono, along with the Edge, bought and refurbished Dublin's two-star 70-bedroom Clarence Hotel, and converted it into a five-star 49-bedroom hotel. The Edge and Bono have recorded several songs together, exclusive of the band. They also worked on the score for the 2011 rock musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark.
In May 2007, MTV reported that Bono was writing the foreword for a collection of poetry entitled "Third Rail". The book's foreword details the meanings of its poetry, stating "The poets who fill the pews here have come to testify, to bear witness to the mysterious power of rock and roll...Rock and roll is truly a broad church, but each lights a candle to their vision of what it is." The collection, edited by poet Jonathan Wells, contains titles such as "Punk rock You're My Big Crybaby", "Variation on a Theme by Whitesnake" and "Vince Neil Meets Josh in a Chinese Restaurant in Malibu (After Ezra Pound)."
Bono is on the board of the Elevation Partners private-equity firm, which attempted to purchase Eidos Interactive in 2005 and has since gone on to invest in other entertainment businesses. Bono has invested in the Forbes Media group in the US through Elevation Partners. Elevation Partners became the first outsider to invest in the company, taking a minority stake in Forbes Media LLC, a new company encompassing the 89-year-old business which includes Forbes magazine, the Forbes.com website and other assets. The terms of the deal were not disclosed, but reports said the stake was worth about €194 million ($250m). The firm also owns a 1.5 percent stake in social networking site Facebook, originally purchased for $210m. Although it was reported that Bono's stake was valued at approximately US$ 1 billion in February 2012, a 2015 article in Forbes stated that this estimate was based on an incorrect attribution of shares.
|1988||Rattle and Hum||Himself||Rockumentary|
|1998||The Simpsons||Himself||TV series; one episode, "Trash of the Titans"|
|1999||Classic Albums||Himself||TV series; one episode, "The Joshua Tree"|
|2000||The Million Dollar Hotel||Man in the hotel lobby||Uncredited cameo appearance, original storywriter, producer|
|Sightings of Bono||Himself||Short film|
|2005||Entourage||Himself||TV series; one episode, "I Love You Too"|
|Across The Universe||Dr. Robert||Sang the Beatles songs "I Am the Walrus" and "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds"|
|American Idol||Himself||TV series; "Idol Gives Back"|
|2008||U2 3D||Himself||3D concert film|
|2009||Entourage||Himself||TV series; one episode, "Give a Little Bit"|
|Brüno||Himself||Mockumentary comedy film|
|2011||From the Sky Down||Himself||Rockumentary|
|Anton Corbijn Inside Out||Himself|
|2012||B.B. King – The Life of Riley||Himself||Documentary|
|The Resurrection of Victor Jara||Himself|
|2013||Arcade Fire in Here Comes The Night Time||Win Butler impersonator||NBC Special|
In addition to his acting credits Bono has contributed music to films, as part of U2 and other collaborations.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 "It's where I shaped my future, says Bono". Evening Herald (Herald.ie). 12 December 2012. http://www.herald.ie/entertainment/around-town/its-where-i-shaped-my-future-says-bono-3324323.html. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- ↑ "Bono: A Global Rock Star and Activist.". Oprah.com. http://www.oprah.com/spirit/Bono-A-Global-Rock-Star-and-Activist. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 "U2 Biography—Bono". Macphisto.net. 2006. http://www.macphisto.net/theband/biography/bonobio.html. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- ↑ 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 Assayas, Michka (2005). Bono on Bono: Conversations with Michka Assayas. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-83276-2Script error.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 "Adam Clayton biography – U2 bassist". atU2.com. http://www.atu2.com/band/adam/. Retrieved 19 November 2010. ; Moss, Vincent (24 December 2006). "The Unforgettable Sire". Sunday Mirror. http://www.sundaymirror.co.uk/showbiz/tm_headline=the-unforgettable-sire%26method=full%26objectid=18322022%26siteid=98487-name_page.html. Retrieved 19 November 2010. ; McIntosh, Elise (3 October 2006). "In Music and Love, U2 Has Staying Power". Staten Island Advance.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 "Bono: Biography from @U2". atU2.com. http://www.atu2.com/band/bono/. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Stockman (2005)
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Bono. (February 2006). Remarks at the National Prayer Breakfast. Speech presented at Hilton Washington Hotel at Washington, DC.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Booth, C. (23 June 1986). Conspiracy of Hope Tour. Time, 127.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Wolinsky, D. (31 May 2005). DMB, U2 Lead Live 7 Shows. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 25 July 2007, from Rolling Stone.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Mellgren, D. (24 February 2006). Bono Among Nobel Peace Prize Nominees. Associated Press. Retrieved 14 January 2007, from Bono Among Nobel Peace Prize Nominees.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 "Grammy Winners List: Artist – U2". Grammy.com. The Recording Academy. http://www.grammy.com/GRAMMY_Awards/Winners/Results.aspx?title=&winner=u2&year=0&genreID=0&hp=1. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Browning, Lynnley (4 February 2007). "The Netherlands, the New Tax Shelter Hot Spot". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/04/business/yourmoney/04amster.html?ex=1174622400&en=513da74cdda62432&ei=5070. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 "Honorary knighthood for U2's Bono". BBC News. (23 December 2006). Retrieved 14 January 2007
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Gibbs, N. (26 December 2005). The Good Samaritans. Time, 166.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Simon, S. (Host). (13 November 1993). Weekend Edition Saturday. Washington, DC: National Public Radio.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 "News". Lost Highway Records. 10 October 2005. Archived from the original on 24 October 2005. https://web.archive.org/web/20051024003150/http://www.johnnycashmusic.com/news.html. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 Bono (10 August 1984). BONO, BOB AND VAN. Hot Press.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 "Billboard.biz". 18 May 2012. http://www.billboard.biz/bbbiz/industry/legal-and-management/business-matters-bono-will-make-maybe-10-1007099752.story. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Elevation Partners. (2007). Introduction to Elevation Partners. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 The Clarence Hotel. (Unknown last update). At the Clarence. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ Wall, Mick (2006). Bono: In the Name of Love. Andre Deutsch Ltd. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-233-00177-7Script error. https://books.google.com/books?id=RupSPwAACAAJ&dq=Bono:+In+the+Name+of+Love&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HqwoUtPtBqnQ2QWQi4CIAQ&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 Dunphy, Eamon (1987). Unforgettable Fire: The Definitive Biography of U2. New York: Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-51459-4Script error.
- ↑ Matthews (2008), p. 8.
- ↑ McCormick, Neil (1 January 1997). "Growing Up With U2". The Daily Telegraph.
- ↑ Schruers, Fred (May 1983). "U2: Small Victories in a Rock and Roll Struggle of Sound and Emotion Report". Musician Magazine.
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 27.2 Edge, Adam Clayton, Larry Mullen Jr.. U2 by U2. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-077674-9Script error.
- ↑ Biography for Bono at the Internet Movie DatabaseScript error
- ↑ Ellis-Petersen, Hannah (17 October 2014). "Bono: I've had glaucoma for past 20 years". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/music/2014/oct/17/bono-glaucoma-20-years-u2-dark-glasses. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- ↑ Wenner, Jann (3 November 2005). "Bono – The Rolling Stone Interview". Rolling Stone (986).
- ↑ Dylan, Bob. Bob Dylan Chronicles, vol. I, Simon & Schuster, N.Y. (2004) p. 174
- ↑ Isaacson, Walter (2011). Steve Jobs. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. pp. 180. ISBN 978-1-4516-4853-9Script error.
- ↑ "100 great British heroes". BBC News (British Broadcasting Corporation). 21 August 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/2208671.stm. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- ↑ "Penn News | Recording Artist/Activist Bono to Deliver Commencement Address at University of Pennsylvania". Upenn.edu. 15 March 2004. http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/news/recording-artistactivist-bono-deliver-commencement-address-university-pennsylvania. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- ↑ "Bono's back surgery puts U2 dates in jeopardy". The BBC. 21 May 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment_and_arts/10139846.stm. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- ↑ "Bono Discharged From Hospital". U2.com. 25 May 2010. http://www.u2.com/news/title/bono-discharged-from-hospital.
- ↑ "North American Leg Postponed". U2.com. 25 May 2010. http://www.u2.com/news/title/north-american-leg-postponed.
- ↑ "North American Dates Will Be Rescheduled in 2011". U2.com. 25 May 2010. http://www.u2.com/news/title/north-american-dates-will-be-rescheduled-in-2011.
- ↑ "17 Irish artists to be proud of". Irishpost.co.uk. 9 April 2013. http://www.irishpost.co.uk/entertainment/17-irish-artists-to-be-proud-of. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- ↑ Pomerantz, Dorothy (14 March 2013). "Down, But Hardly Out: Oprah Winfrey Tops Forbes 2013 List Of The Most Influential Celebrities". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/dorothypomerantz/2013/03/14/oprah-winfrey-tops-our-list-of-the-most-influential-celebrities. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 "Bono: Biography from @U2". Atu2.com. http://www.atu2.com/band/bono/. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ "U2's Bono Discusses His Faith and Insecurity Over New Album". Christian News, The Gospel Herald. http://www.gospelherald.com/articles/50766/20140329/u2-s-bono-discusses-his-faith-and-insecurity-over-new-album.htm. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ "U2's Bono: Yes, Jesus is the Son of God". WND. http://www.wnd.com/2013/06/u2s-bono-jesus-is-the-son-of-god/. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ Video on YouTubeScript error, Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- ↑ Michka Assayas, Bono in Conversation, (Riverhead Hardcover, 2005) page 205.
- ↑ "Bono: Grace over Karma". Crosswalk. http://www.crosswalk.com/11617924/. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ Newman, Jason (19 November 2014). "Bono Treated With Metal Plates, 'Intensive Therapy' After Bike Injury". Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/bono-intensive-therapy-bike-injury-20141119. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- ↑ "Injured Bono keeps his head down as he's seen for the first time since emergency surgery after bike crash". evoke.ie. 24 December 2014. http://www.evoke.ie/showbiz/injured-bono-keeps-his-head-down-as-hes-seen-for-the-first-time-since-emergency-surgery-after-bike-crash/.
- ↑ "Cycling Injuries mean Bono May Never Play Guitar Again". Cycling Weekly. http://www.cyclingweekly.co.uk/news/latest-news/cycling-injuries-mean-bono-may-never-play-guitar-150598. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
- ↑ "Bono's guitar playing days may be over after cycling accident". evoke.ie. 2 January 2015. http://www.evoke.ie/showbiz/bonos-guitar/.
- ↑ Henke, James (9 June 1983). "Blessed Are the Peacemakers". Rolling Stone (397): 11–14.
- ↑ "Bono in San Antonio". U2 magazine (3). May 1982.
- ↑ "U2—Bono Takes Piano Lessons". Contactmusic.com. 6 February 2006. http://www.contactmusic.com/new/xmlfeed.nsf/story/bono-takes-piano-lessons_02_06_2006. Retrieved 14 February 2008.
- ↑ Script error
- ↑ Script error
- ↑ "Award Search – Bono". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. http://www1.hfpa.org/browse/member/28459. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- ↑ Boliek, Brooks (5 June 2007). "Appeals court throws out FCC indecency ruling". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 7 July 2007. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/content_display/news/e3i9177e066be8bee44d835017eb6e0cda7. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
- ↑ Script error
- ↑ Ahrens, Frank (19 March 2004). "FCC Says Bono Profanity Violated Standards, but Won't Fine NBC". The Washington Post: pp. E1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A6242-2004Mar18¬Found=true. Retrieved 16 July 2007.
- ↑ "Congressmen introduces bill to curb profanity in broadcasting". Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press. 8 January 2004. http://www.rcfp.org/browse-media-law-resources/news/congressmen-introduces-bill-curb-profanity-broadcasting.
- ↑ 61.0 61.1 Clay Calvert (2004). "Bono, the Culture Wars, and a Profane Decision: The FCC's Reversal of Course on Indecency Determinations and Its New Path on Profanity". Seattle University Law Review 28 (1): 61–95. http://digitalcommons.law.seattleu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1802&context=sulr.
- ↑ 62.0 62.1 H.R. 3687 (108th) – GovTrack
- ↑ Bill Holland (10 January 2004). "Fox Runs Afoul of FCC". Billboard. p. 8. https://books.google.pt/books?id=qA8EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA8.
- ↑  Script error
- ↑ "100 Greatest Singers of All Time – No. 32: Bono". Rolling Stone (1066). 27 November 2008. http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/100-greatest-singers-of-all-time-19691231/bono-20101202. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- ↑ McConnell, Daniel (6 August 2006). "U2 move their rock empire out of Ireland". The Irish Independent. http://www.independent.ie/national-news/u2-move-their-rock-empire-out-of-ireland-133364.html. Retrieved 25 February 2009.
- ↑ Fergal O'Brien (15 October 2006). "Bono, Preacher on Poverty, Tarnishes Halo With Irish Tax Move". Bloomberg. https://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&refer=home&sid=aef6sR60oDgM. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- ↑ Hyde, Marina (February 2007). "They live like aristocrats. Now they think like them". The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group). https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/story/0,,1968136,00.html. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
- ↑ "U2 reject tax avoidance claims". Belfast Telegraph. 26 February 2009. http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/entertainment/music/news/u2-reject-tax-avoidance-claims-14203636.html. Retrieved 26 February 2009.
- ↑ Horin, Adele (26 July 2008). "Tax tourists and the crown prince of thieves". The Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney). http://www.smh.com.au/news/adele-horin/tax-tourists-and-the-crown-prince-of-thieves/2008/07/25/1216492729375.html?page=fullpage. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- ↑ U2. (1998). Slow Dancing. On If God Will Send His Angels [CD-Single]. New York: Island Records.
- ↑ Louie, R. (6 February 1996). Short Takes. Buffalo News. Retrieved 3 May 2007, from Opera man Luciano Pavarotti wants to be hip.
- ↑ Voyer, R. (1 October 2005).. Splendid. Retrieved 3 May 2007, from Splendid Magazine reviews Sinéad O'Connor Script error splendidezine.com.
- ↑ Orbison, R. (1989). "She's a Mystery to Me". On Mystery Girl [CD]. London: Virgin Records.
- ↑ Various Artists. (1995). Goldeneye. On Goldeneye: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack [CD]. New York: Virgin Records.
- ↑ Script error
- ↑ Kissel, Howard (6 August 1998). "Platinum Tenor Meet Opera Sensation Andrea Bocelli, Italy's 'Young Pavarotti'". Daily News (New York). http://www.nydailynews.com/archives/entertainment/1998/08/06/1998-08-06_platinum_tenor_meet_opera_se.html. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- ↑ U2. (1988). When Love Comes to Town. On Rattle and Hum [CD]. New York: Island Records.
- ↑ U2 Wanderer. (Unknown last update). U2 Discography—Q's Jook Joint. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ Kirk Franklin. (1998). Lean on me. On THE NU NATION PROJECT [CD-Album]. Inglewood: GospoCentric Records.
- ↑ Stanley, A. (19 May 2007). Bruce Springsteen: THE RISING TOUR 2003-2003 FINAL TOUR STATISTICS. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ TonyBennett.net. (Unknown last update). Tony Bennett, Columbia Records. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ U2tour.de. (Unknown last update). In A Lifetime (Clannad & Bono). Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ Cashmere, P. (14 April 2004). The Corrs Record Another Bono Song. Undercover Media. Retrieved 4 July 2007, from undercover.com.au.
- ↑ U2Wanderer.org. (Unknown last update). U2 Discography—New Day Single. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ "Kylie's Bono Moment – Kylie Minogue – News – MTV UK". MTV UK. http://www.mtv.co.uk/artists/kylie-minogue/news/39533-kylies-bono-moment. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ Koda, Cub. Go Cat Go – Carl Perkins at Allmusic. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- ↑ Mensch feat. Bono von Herbert Grönemeyer – laut.de – Song
- ↑ Barile, L.A. (28 March 2003). PASSAGES: Jennifer Lopez's Latest Duet. People. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ Robbie Robertson. (1987). Sweet Fire of Love. On Robbie Robertson [CD-Album]. Santa Monica: Geffen Records.
- ↑ "Michael Hutchence's Brother Praises Kylie And Bono". 15 August 2006. http://www.entertainmentwise.com/news?id=21036. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- ↑ "D'banj Bono, Waje, Omotola Jalade-Ekeinde star in conscious 'Strong girl' remix". David Mawuli. http://pulse.com.gh/music-videos/dbanj-bono-waje-omotola-jalade-ekeinde-star-in-conscious-strong-girl-remix-id4200409.html. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
- ↑ "Rise Above 1 by Reeve Carney feat. Bono and the Edge – Rolling Stone Music – Album Reviews". Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/music/songreviews/rise-above-1-20110526. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ "'Spider-Man' star Reeve Carney in new video with Bono, the Edge". Los Angeles Times (Latimesblogs.latimes.com). 28 July 2011. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/culturemonster/2011/07/spider-man-star-reeve-carney-in-new-video-with-bono-the-edge.html. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ Ronald Brownstein, , The NJ 20 29 April 2011.
- ↑ Michael Anft, Brennen Jensen, and Ian Wilhelm, "Voicing Support for Charity", The Chronicle of Philanthropy 3 August 2006.
- ↑ Dean Goodman, "Hollywood Hails U2's Bono for Philanthropy", Reuters New Media 15 February 2002 
- ↑ Tom Zeller, Jr. (13 November 2006). "Trying to Throw His Arms Around the World". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/13/us/13bono.html?n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fP%2fPhilanthropy.
- ↑ "Nancy Gibbs, "The Good Samaritans"". Time. 19 December 2005. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1142278,00.html. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ Boyd, B. (20 October 2006). A secret history of the old Ball game. Irish Times. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ Robert Palmer (21 April 1985). "Music becomes food for the hungry". The New York Times: p. 60. https://www.nytimes.com/1985/04/21/arts/music-becomes-food-for-the-hungry.html.
- ↑ Flannery, M. (15 July 1985). Bob Geldof. Philadelphia Daily News, pp. L15.
- ↑ 103.0 103.1 Denny, C., & Black, I. (15 March 2002). US and Europe boost aid to poorest countries. The Guardian. Retrieved 14 January 2007.
- ↑ Harris, K. (23 April 2005). Bono Upset at PM. Toronto Sun. Retrieved 14 January 2007.
- ↑ Langlois, F. (23 September 2004). John Ralston Saul awarded the Pablo Neruda International Presidential Medal of Honour. Governor General of Canada. Retrieved 14 January 2007
- ↑ "2004 TIME 100". Time Magazine. 26 April 2004. http://www.time.com/time/2004/time100/
- ↑ "2006 TIME 100". Time Magazine: 84. 2006. http://www.time.com/time/2006/time100/
- ↑ 
- ↑ "TED Prize". TED. https://www.ted.com/participate/ted-prize. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ 110.0 110.1 "TED Conference page". Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20080517021513/http://www.ted.com/pages/view/id/109. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- ↑ "Alicia Keys, Bono to raise funds with AIDS song". Associated Press. 2 December 2005. http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/10269863.
- ↑ Gundersen, Edna (4 April 2005). "Bono recalls pontiff's affection for the poor—and cool sunglasses". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/people/2005-04-03-pope-bono_x.htm. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- ↑ Masterson, John (6 March 2005). "Ali's other Eden". Irish Independent (Dublin). http://www.independent.ie/unsorted/features/alis-other-eden-465270.html.
- ↑ "Fashion with a Conscience". Heyoka. Spring 2006. Archived from the original on 17 June 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20060617072741/http://heyokamagazine.com/HEYOKA.4.Fashion.htm.
- ↑ "About Edun". EDUN. Archived from the original on 29 March 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20070329013300/http://www.edun.ie/about.asp. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
- ↑ Theroux, Paul (15 December 2005). "The Rock Star's Burden". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/15/opinion/15theroux.html. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ Ahmad, Muhammad Idrees (15 August 2005). "Live 8 – A movement robbed of its colours". Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom. http://keywords.dsvr.co.uk/cpbf_newsite/body.php?subject=international&id=1104. Retrieved 5 March 2009.
- ↑ [Unknown Author] (23 December 2006). Bono gets honorary knighthood. RTÉ News. Retrieved 14 January 2007, from RTE.
- ↑ [Unknown Author], (29 March 2007). Don't call him 'sir': U2's Bono knighted. Associated Press. Retrieved 29 March 2007.
- ↑  Script error
- ↑ "Home—Liberty Medal—National Constitution Center". Constitutioncenter.org. http://www.constitutioncenter.org/libertymedal/. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ "Bono Gets Medal for His Work in Africa". Huffingpost.com. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/huff-wires/20070927/liberty-medal/. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ 123.0 123.1 123.2 "debt AIDS trade africa". ONE. http://www.data.org/about/mission.html. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ "The Africa Issue: Politics & Power", Vanity Fair July 2007. The concept behind the 20 covers was termed as to represent a "visual chain letter". The covers feature Don Cheadle, Barack Obama, Muhammad Ali, Bono, Queen Rania of Jordan, Condoleezza Rice, George W. Bush, Desmond Tutu, Brad Pitt, Djimon Hounsou, Madonna, Maya Angelou, Chris Rock, Warren Buffett, Bill Gates, Melinda Gates, Oprah Winfrey, George Clooney, Jay-Z, Alicia Keys, and Iman Abdulmajid.
- ↑ "Bloomberg Markets, "Bono Inc", March 2007". Bloomberg.com. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/marketsmag/bono.pdf. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ "Bono and Bob Geldof increase Africa's problems say charity". NME.COM. 23 November 2007. http://www.nme.com/news/bono/32704. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ "Michka Assayas meets Bono". Timesonline.co.uk. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/article732323.ece. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑  Script error
- ↑ "Brian Williams in Africa,". Msnbc.msn.com. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12916501/. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ "Nobel laureates crown U2's Bono 'man of peace'". @U2: Independent Site for U2 Fans. http://www.atu2.com/news/article.src?ID=5153. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ Persuaders, LLC. (2007). What RED Is, How RED Works. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ Persuaders, LLC. (2007). Products. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ Smykil, J. (4 November 2006). Update: The Other Red
meat"charity". Message posted to arstechnica.com; Macintouch Reader Reports. (7 November 2006). Fraud Reports: Jack Campbell. Retrieved 14 January 2007, from macintouch.com.
- ↑ Amanpour, Christiane (1 November 2016). "Bono Just Became Glamour's First Man of the Year". Glamour. http://www.glamour.com/story/women-of-the-year-bono?mbid=social_twitter_glamourdotcom. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
- ↑ Kit, B. (19 April 2007). Bono, Edge Penning Tunes For 'Spider-Man' Musical. Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ 136.0 136.1 136.2 MTV News staff. (17 May 2007). U2 frontman writes forward to poetry collection. MTV News. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ Fahey, R. (22 April 2005). Elevation Partners withdraws its offer for Eidos. gi. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- ↑ "Bono consortium buys a stake in Forbes – RTÉ Ten". Rte.ie. 22 September 2014. http://www.rte.ie/arts/2006/0809/bono.html. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- ↑ Carr, David (7 August 2006). "Investors, Including Bono, Buy a Piece of Forbes". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/07/business/media/07carr.html. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- ↑ Nussbaum, Bruce. (7 August 2006) Bono Buys Into Forbes, Launches Product Red in US and Expands His Brand. BusinessWeek. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- ↑ Deegan, Gordon (2015-08-30). "Bono become world's richest pop star with '£1 billion' fortune". mirror. http://www.mirror.co.uk/3am/celebrity-news/bono-becomes-worlds-richest-pop-6349790.
- ↑ "$1 billion Facebook fortune for Bono". New Zealand Herald. 4 February 2012. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/world/news/article.cfm?c_id=2&objectid=10783339. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- ↑ Robehmed, Natalie. "Why U2's Bono Isn't A Billionaire". Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/natalierobehmed/2015/09/01/why-u2s-bono-isnt-a-billionaire/#20e9a7967809.
- Assayas, Michka; Bono (2005). Bono in Conversation with Michka Assayas. New York City: Riverhead Books. ISBN 1-57322-309-3Script error.
- Matthews, Sheelagh (2008). Bono. Remarkable People. New York City: Weigl Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59036-638-7Script error.
- Stockman, Steve (2001). Walk On: The Spiritual Journey of U2. Lake Mary: Relevant Books. ISBN 978-0-88419-793-5Script error.
- Vagacs, Robert (2005). Religious Nuts, Political Fanatics: U2 in Theological Perspective. Cascade Books. ISBN 1-59752-336-4Script error.
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