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Long Beach, California
—  Charter city[1]  —
City of Long Beach
Images from top, left to right: Long Beach skyline from Bluff Park, RMS Queen Mary, Aquarium of the Pacific Blue Cavern exhibit, TTI Terminal at Port of Long Beach, Villa Riviera, Metro Blue Line, Long Beach Lighthouse
Flag of Long Beach, California
Flag
Official seal of Long Beach, California
Seal
Nickname(s): "Aquatic Capital of America"[2]
Motto: "The International City"
Location within Los Angeles County in the U.S. state of California

Script errorLocation in the United States

Coordinates:
Country Flag of the United States.svg United States
State 23px California
County 23px Los Angeles
CSA Los Angeles-Long Beach
MSA Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim
Incorporated December 13, 1897[3]
Government
 • Type Council-manager[1]
 • Mayor Robert Garcia[5]
 • City council[4] Jeannine Pearce
Lena Gonzalez
Suzie Price
Dee Andrews
Stacy Mungo
Al Austin
Rex Richardson (Vice Mayor)
Roberto Uranga
 • City manager Patrick H. West[6]
 • City auditor Laura L. Doud[7]
 • City prosecutor Doug Haubert[8]
Area[9]
 • City 62.3 sq mi (133.223 km2)
 • Land 50.293 sq mi (130.259 km2)
 • Water 10.2 sq mi (2.964 km2)  2.22%
 • Metro 4,850.3 sq mi (Bad rounding hereScript error km2)
Elevation[10] 52 ft (Bad rounding hereScript error m)
Population (April 1, 2010)[11]
 • City 510,000* (city census bureau)
 • Estimate (2015) 492,969
 • Rank 2nd in Los Angeles County
7th in California
36th in the United States
 • Density
 • Urban density
 • Rural density
 • Metro 1,282,837
 • Metro density Script error/sq mi (Script error/km2)
 • CSA[12] 1,787,006
 • CSA Density
 •  Density
Time zone Pacific (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes[13] 90801–90810, 90813–90815, 90822, 90831–90835, 90840, 90842, 90844, 90846–90848, 90853, 90895, 90899
Area code 562
FIPS code 06-43000
GNIS feature IDs 1652747, 2410866
Website Script error

Long Beach is the 36th most populous city in the United States and the 7th most populous in California. It is located on the Pacific Coast of the United States, within the Greater Los Angeles area of Southern California. As of 2010, its population was 462,257.[14] Long Beach is the second largest city in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, and the third largest in Southern California behind Los Angeles and San Diego.

The Port of Long Beach is the second busiest container port in the United States and is among the world's largest shipping ports.[15] The city also maintains a progressively declining oil industry with minor wells located both directly beneath the city as well as offshore. Manufacturing sectors include those in aircraft, automotive parts, electronic equipment, audiovisual equipment, petrochemicals, precision metals and home furnishings.

Long Beach lies in the southeastern corner of Los Angeles County and borders Orange County.[16] Downtown Long Beach is approximately Script error south of Downtown Los Angeles, though the two cities share an official border for several miles.

HistoryEdit

Script error Script error Indigenous people have lived in coastal Southern California for over 10,000 years, and several successive cultures have inhabited the present-day area of Long Beach. By the 16th-century arrival of Spanish explorers, the dominant group were the Tongva people. They had at least three major settlements within the present-day city. Tevaaxa'anga was an inland settlement near the Los Angeles River, while Ahwaanga and Povuu'nga were coastal villages. Along with other Tongva villages, they were forced to relocate in the mid-19th century due to missionization, political change, and a drastic drop in population from exposure to European diseases.[17]

In 1784 the Spanish Empire's King Carlos III granted Rancho Los Nietos to Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto. The Rancho Los Cerritos and Rancho Los Alamitos were divided from this territory. The boundary between the two ranchos ran through the center of Signal Hill on a southwest to northeast diagonal. A portion of western Long Beach was originally part of the Rancho San Pedro. Its boundaries were in dispute for years, due to flooding changing the Los Angeles River boundary, between the ranchos of Juan Jose Dominguez and Manuel Nieto.

In 1843 Jonathan Temple bought Rancho Los Cerritos, having arrived in California in 1827 from New England. He built what is now known as the "Los Cerritos Ranch House", a still-standing adobe which is a National Historic Landmark. Temple created a thriving cattle ranch and prospered, becoming the wealthiest man in Los Angeles County. Both Temple and his ranch house played important local roles in the Mexican–American War. On an island in the San Pedro Bay, Mormon pioneers made an abortive attempt to establish a colony (as part of Brigham Young's plan to establish a continuous chain of settlements from the Pacific to Salt Lake).

File:Long Beach Pier 1905.png

In 1866 Temple sold Rancho Los Cerritos for $20,000 to the Northern California sheep-raising firm of Flint, Bixby & Co, which consisted of brothers Thomas and Benjamin Flint and their cousin Lewellyn Bixby. Two years previous Flint, Bixby & Co had also purchased along with Northern California associate James Irvine, three ranchos which would later become the city that bears Irvine's name. To manage Rancho Los Cerritos, the company selected Lewellyn's brother Jotham Bixby, the "Father of Long Beach". Three years later Bixby bought into the property and would later form the Bixby Land Company. In the 1870s as many as 30,000 sheep were kept at the ranch and sheared twice yearly to provide wool for trade. In 1880, Bixby sold Script error of the Rancho Los Cerritos to William E. Willmore, who subdivided it in hopes of creating a farm community, Willmore City. He failed and was bought out by a Los Angeles syndicate that called itself the "Long Beach Land and Water Company." They changed the name of the community to Long Beach, at that time. The City of Long Beach was officially incorporated in 1897.

File:LongBeach-1907.jpg

Another Bixby cousin, John W. Bixby, was influential in the city. After first working for his cousins at Los Cerritos, J.W. Bixby leased land at Rancho Los Alamitos. He put together a group: banker I.W. Hellman, Lewellyn and Jotham Bixby, and him, to purchase the rancho. In addition to bringing innovative farming methods to the Alamitos (which under Abel Stearns in the late 1850s and early 1860s was once the largest cattle ranch in the US), J.W. Bixby began the development of the oceanfront property near the city's picturesque bluffs. Under the name Alamitos Land Company, J.W. Bixby named the streets and laid out the parks of his new city. This area would include Belmont Heights, Belmont Shore and Naples; it soon became a thriving community of its own. J.W. Bixby died in 1888 of apparent appendicitis. The Rancho Los Alamitos property was split up, with Hellman getting the southern third, Jotham and Lewellyn the northern third, and J.W. Bixby's widow and heirs keeping the central third. The Alamitos townsite was kept as a separate entity, but at first it was primarily run by Lewellyn and Jotham Bixby, although I.W, Hellman (who had the largest single share) had a significant veto power, an influence made even stronger as the J.W. Bixby heirs began to side with Hellman more and more.

When Jotham Bixby died in 1916, the remaining Script error of Rancho Los Cerritos was subdivided into the neighborhoods of Bixby Knolls, California Heights, North Long Beach and part of the city of Signal Hill.

File:LongBeach-oilfield-1920.jpg

The town grew as a seaside resort with light agricultural uses.[18] The Pike was the most famous beachside amusement zone on the West Coast from 1902 until 1969, it offered bathers food, games and rides, such at the Sky Wheel dual Ferris wheel and Cyclone Racer roller coaster. Gradually the oil industry, Navy shipyard and facilities and port became the mainstays of the city. In the 1950s it was referred to as "Iowa by the sea," due to a large influx of people from that and other Midwestern states. Huge picnics for migrants from each state were a popular annual event in Long Beach until the 1960s.

Oil was discovered in 1921 on Signal Hill, which split off as a separate incorporated city shortly afterward. The discovery of the Long Beach Oil Field, brought in by the gusher at the Alamitos No. 1 well, made Long Beach a major oil producer; in the 1920s the field was the most productive in the world.[19] In 1932, the even larger Wilmington Oil Field, fourth-largest in the United States, and which is mostly in Long Beach, was developed, contributing to the city's fame in the 1930s as an oil town.[20]

The M6.4 1933 Long Beach earthquake caused significant damage to the city and surrounding areas, killing a total of 120 people. Most of the damage occurred in unreinforced masonry buildings, especially schools. Pacific Bible Seminary (now known as Hope International University) was forced to move classes out of First Christian Church of Long Beach and into a small local home due to damage.[21]

File:LongBeachFord.jpg

The Ford Motor Company built a factory called Long Beach Assembly at the then address in 1929 as "700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach" where the factory began building the Ford Model A. Production of Ford vehicles continued after the war until 1960 when the plant was closed due to a fire,[22] and January 1991 when the factory was demolished partially due to air quality remediation efforts. Ford had earlier opened a Factory in Los Angeles at the location of 12th Street and Olive, with a later factory built at East Seventh Street and Santa Fe Avenue after 1914.[23]

The city was the site of "The Los Angeles Air Raid of 1942" during World War II, when observers for the Army Air Corps reported shells being fired from the sea. Anti-aircraft batteries fired into the night sky, although no planes were ever sighted.

Before the war, Long Beach had a sizable Japanese-American population, who worked in the fish canneries on Terminal Island and owned small truck (produce) farms in the area. Due to exaggerated fears on the coast and racial prejudice, state officials persuaded the national government to remove Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans for internment in 1942 to inland facilities. Most did not return to the city after their release from the camps. Due to this and other factors, Japanese Americans now make up less than 1% of the population of Long Beach, but the Japanese Community Center and a Japanese Buddhist Church survive. The Japanese-American Cultural Center is located over the Gerald Desmond Bridge and the Vincent Thomas Bridge in San Pedro.

Douglas Aircraft Company's largest facility was its Long Beach plant, totaling 1,422,350 sq. ft. The first plane rolled out the door on December 23, 1941. The plant produced C-47 Skytrain transports, B-17 Flying Fortress bombers, and A-20 Havoc attack bombers simultaneously. Douglas merged with the McDonnell Aircraft Company in 1967 where the Douglas DC-8 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 were built. In 1997 McDonnell Douglas merged with Boeing, which still makes C-17 Globemaster transport planes in Long Beach, although this program is slated to end and the plant may be closed.[24][25]

File:Douglas Aircraft plant, Long Beach, CA.tiff

In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Long Beach's population as 6% Hispanic, 5.4% Black, and 86.2% non-Hispanic White.[27]

The nonprofit Aquarium of the Pacific, located in downtown Long Beach, opened to the public in 1998. It has become a major attraction visited by more than 13 million people since its opening. Kajima International was the developer of the Aquarium of the Pacific and architects included the Los Angeles office of Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum and Esherick Homsey Dodge and Davis of San Francisco.


GeographyEdit

File:Long Beach CA Photo D Ramey Logan.jpg

Long Beach is located at 33° 47' North, 118° 10' West, about Script error south of downtown Los Angeles. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of Script error, with Script error of its area being land and Script error of it (2.22%) is water. Long Beach completely surrounds the city of Signal Hill.

NeighborhoodsEdit

File:LB Neighborhoods.jpg

Long Beach is composed of many different neighborhoods. Some neighborhoods are named after thoroughfares, while others are named for nearby parks, schools, or city features.

ClimateEdit

Long Beach, depending on the reporting location, has a Mediterranean climate, with strong semi-arid climate characteristics. Days in Long Beach are mostly sunny, as in Southern California in general. Temperatures recorded at the weather station at the Long Beach Airport, Script error inland from the ocean, range more greatly than those along the immediate coast. During the summer months, low clouds and fog occur frequently, developing overnight and blanketing the area on many mornings. This fog usually clears by the afternoon, and a westerly sea breeze often develops, keeping temperatures mild. Heat and humidity rarely coincide, making heat waves more tolerable than they would be otherwise.

Long Beach's geographic location directly east of the Palos Verdes Peninsula, paired with its mostly south facing coastline, results in the city having significantly different weather patterns than coastal communities to the north and south. The 1200 ft Palos Verdes hills block west to east airflow and, with it, a significant amount of the coastal moisture that marks other coastal cities, such as Manhattan Beach, Santa Monica, and Newport Beach.

As in most locations in Southern California, most rainfall occurs during the winter months. Storms can bring heavy rainfall.[28]

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EnvironmentEdit

PollutionEdit

Long Beach suffers from some of the worst air pollution in the entire United States.[32] Most of the city is in proximity to the twin ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, and the prevailing westerly-to-west-south-westerly winds bring a large portion of the twin ports' air pollution directly into Long Beach before dispersing it northward then eastward.[33] Heavy pollution sources at the ports include the ships themselves, which burn high-sulfur, high-soot-producing bunker fuel to maintain internal electrical power while docked, as well as heavy diesel pollution from drayage trucks at the ports, and short-haul tractor-trailer trucks ferrying cargo from the ports to inland warehousing, rail yards, and shipping centers. Long-term average levels of toxic air pollutants (and the corresponding carcinogenic risk they create) can be two to three times higher in and around Long Beach, and in downwind areas to the east, than in other parts of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, such as the Westside, San Fernando Valley, or San Gabriel Valley.[34] While overall regional pollution in the Los Angeles metropolitan area has declined in the last decade, pollution levels remain dangerously high in much of Long Beach due to the port pollution, with diesel exhaust from ships, trains, and trucks as the largest sources.[35]

Additionally, the Long Beach area is directly downwind of several of the South Bay oil refineries. Any refinery process or upset that results in the atmospheric release of refinery by-products (commonly sulfur dioxide)[36][37] will usually impact air in Long Beach due to the west-south-westerly prevailing wind.[33]

Similarly, the water quality in the Long Beach portion of San Pedro Bay, which is enclosed by the Federal Breakwater, commonly ranks among the poorest on the entire West Coast during rainy periods. Many Long Beach beaches average a D or F grade on beach water quality during wet periods in the Beach Report Card published by Heal the Bay.[38] However, during dry periods the water often attains A ratings in the same reports. The Los Angeles River discharges directly into the Long Beach side of San Pedro Bay, and conveys a large portion of all the urban runoff from the entire Los Angeles metropolitan area directly into the harbor water. This runoff contains most of the debris, garbage, chemical pollutants, and biological pathogens that are washed into storm drains in every upstream city each time it rains. Because the breakwater prevents normal tidal flushing and wave action, these pollutants build up in the harbor. The water enclosed by the breakwater, along most of the city's beaches, can be subject to red tides due to this stagnation as well. Because of these factors, the water in Long Beach is unsafe for swimming on a few days or weeks each year.[38]

EcologyEdit

File:LongBeachLongView.jpg

The area that is now Long Beach historically included several ecological communities, with coastal scrub dominating.[39] A handful of the native plants of the region can still be found in the city. These include California buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum), California sagebrush (Artemisia californica), and California poppy (Eschscholzia californica). Some stands of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) still remain in the El Dorado Nature Center. California fan palm (Washingtonia filifera), a plant that is native further inland, was introduced to the city as a garden ornamental and is now naturalized. Some indigenous species of birds, mammals, and other wildlife have adapted to development.

Since the arrival of Europeans, many alien species have become naturalized in the area. Introduced plants include yellow mustard, eucalyptus, wild radish, and tumbleweed. Such plants now far outnumber the indigenous plants and spread rapidly in the city's vacant lots and oil fields.

The city and its residents have initiatives underway to preserve and reclaim part of its ecological heritage. The RiverLink project has begun to revegetate the Long Beach stretch of the Los Angeles River with indigenous plants. Part of the remaining Pacific Electric right-of-way was cleared of nonnatives, planted with indigenous plants, and made accessible with foot and bike paths. This community open space is now known as The Long Beach Greenbelt and is the focus of continuing efforts in restoration and community education.

The El Dorado Nature Center has changed its original "hands-off" approach and has begun to actively introduce indigenous species.[40] The Los Cerritos Wetlands Study Group, state government agencies, and grassroots groups are collaborating on a plan to preserve Long Beach's last remaining wetlands.[41] Long Beach is the first city in California to join the 'EcoZone' Program, intended to measurably improve environmental conditions through public-private partnerships. Such projects seek to reduce pollution, restore native habitat, and provide green areas for the city's residents to enjoy.

Other places in Long Beach to see natural areas include Bluff Park (coastal bluffs), the Golden Shores Marine Reserve, the Jack Dunster Marine Reserve, Shoreline Park, and DeForest Park.

Long Beach led Southern California in parks access, size and spending, ranking 16th among a survey of 75 large U.S. cities, with Los Angeles and Anaheim tied for 51st and Santa Ana 69th, according to a study released by a national conservation group.[42]


DemographicsEdit

Historical population
Census Pop. <tr><td style="text-align:center">1890</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">564</td><td style="font-size:85%"></td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">—</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1900</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">2,252</td><td style="font-size:85%"></td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">Script error%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1910</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">17,809</td><td style="font-size:85%"></td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">Script error%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1920</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">55,593</td><td style="font-size:85%"></td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">Script error%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1930</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">142,032</td><td style="font-size:85%"></td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">Script error%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1940</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">164,271</td><td style="font-size:85%"></td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">Script error%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1950</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">250,767</td><td style="font-size:85%"></td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">Script error%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1960</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">334,168</td><td style="font-size:85%"></td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">Script error%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1970</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">358,879</td><td style="font-size:85%"></td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">Script error%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1980</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">361,498</td><td style="font-size:85%"></td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">Script error%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1990</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">429,433</td><td style="font-size:85%"></td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">Script error%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">2000</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">461,522</td><td style="font-size:85%"></td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">Script error%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">2010</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">462,257</td><td style="font-size:85%"></td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">Script error%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">Est. 2015</td><td style="padding-left:8px; ">474,140</td><td style="font-size:85%">[43]</td><td style="padding-left:8px; text-align: center;">Script error%</td></tr><tr><td colspan=4 style="border-top:1px solid black; font-size:85%; text-align:left">
U.S. Decennial Census[44]
</td></tr>
Demographic profile 2010[11] 1990[27] 1970[27] 1950[27]
White 46.1% 58.4% 91.8% 97.4%
 —Non-Hispanic 29.4% 49.5% 86.2% N/A
Black or African American 13.5% 13.7% 5.3% 1.7%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 40.8% 23.6% 6.0% N/A
Asian 12.9% 13.6% 1.9% 0.7%

2010Edit

File:Race and ethnicity 2010- Long Beach (5560461606).png

The 2010 United States Census[45] reported that Long Beach had a population of 462,257.[11] The population density was 9,191.3 people per square mile (3,548.8/km²). The racial makeup of Long Beach was 213,066 (46.1%) White, 62,603 (13.5%) Black or African American, 3,458 (0.7%) Native American, 59,496 (12.9%) Asian (4.5% Filipino, 3.9% Cambodian, 0.9% Vietnamese, 0.6% Chinese, 0.6% Japanese, 0.4% Indian, 0.4% Korean, 0.2% Thai, 0.1% Laotian, 0.1% Hmong), 5,253 (1.1%) Pacific Islander (0.8% Samoan, 0.1% Guamanian, 0.1% Tongan), 93,930 (20.3%) from other races, and 24,451 (5.3%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 188,412 persons (40.8%). 32.9% of the city's population was of Mexican heritage.[46] Non-Hispanic Whites were 29.4% of the population in 2010,[11] down from 86.2% in 1970.[27]

The Census reported that 453,980 people (98.2% of the population) lived in households, 5,321 (1.2%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 2,956 (0.6%) were institutionalized.[46]

There were 163,531 households, out of which 58,073 (35.5%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 61,850 (37.8%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 26,781 (16.4%) had a female householder with no husband present, 10,598 (6.5%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 12,106 (7.4%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 3,277 (2.0%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. Of the households, 46,536 (28.5%) were made up of individuals and 11,775 (7.2%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78. There were 99,229 families (60.7% of all households); the average family size was 3.52.

File:Long Beach California from Airplane looking North.jpg

The age distribution of the city was as follows: 115,143 people (24.9%) were under the age of 18, 54,163 people (11.7%) aged 18 to 24, 140,910 people (30.5%) aged 25 to 44, 109,206 people (23.6%) aged 45 to 64, and 42,835 people (9.3%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.2 years. For every 100 females there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.8 males.

There were 176,032 housing units at an average density of 3,422.2 per square mile (1,321.3/km²), of which 67,949 (41.6%) were owner-occupied, and 95,582 (58.4%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.0%; the rental vacancy rate was 7.2%. 195,254 people (42.2% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 258,726 people (56.0%) lived in rental housing units.

During 2009–2013, Long Beach had a median household income of $52,711, with 20.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line.[11]

2000Edit

As of the census[47] of 2000, there were 461,522 people, 163,088 households, and 99,646 families residing in the city. The population density was 9,149.8 inhabitants per square mile (3,532.8/km²). There were 171,632 housing units at an average density of 3,402.6 per square mile (1,313.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 45.2% White, 14.9% Black or African American (U.S. Census), 0.8% Native American, 12.1% Asian, 1.2% Pacific Islander, 20.6% from other races, and 5.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 35.8% of the population.

The city has changed since the 1950s, when its population was predominantly European-American and the city was nicknamed "Iowa by the Sea" or "Iowa under Palm Trees" as it had a slower pace than that of neighboring Los Angeles. In 1950, whites represented 97.4% of Long Beach's population.[48] Since the second half of the 20th century, the city has been a major port of entry for Asian and Latin American immigrants headed to Los Angeles. The Harbor section of downtown Long Beach was once home to people of Dutch, Greek, Italian, Maltese, Portuguese and Spanish ancestry, most of them employed in manufacturing and fish canneries until the 1960s.

According to a report by USA Today in 2000, Long Beach is the most ethnically diverse large city in the United States.[49] Non-Hispanic White Americans made up 30.0% of the city's population. Its Asian community includes the largest Cambodian community in the United States, and the second-largest Cambodian community outside of Asia (after Paris). A neighborhood along Anaheim Street is called "Little Phnom Penh". There are also sizable populations of immigrants and descendants from Vietnam and the Philippines.

Long Beach had offered many industrial jobs to African Americans during the years of World War II. This resulted in the increase of blacks in Long Beach caused by the Second Great Migration. There are black communities in the Eastside and North Long Beach neighborhoods.

It has a relatively high proportion of Pacific Islanders (over 1% as of the 2000 Census), from Samoa and Tonga. Most American Indians, about 0.8% of the city's population, arrived during the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs urban relocation programs in the 1950s.

Long Beach once had a sizable Japanese American population, which largely worked in the fish canneries on Terminal Island and on small truck farms in the area. In 1942, not long after the Attack on Pearl Harbor and subsequent Japanese declaration of war on the United States and the British Empire, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued United States Executive Order 9066 which allowed military commanders to designate areas "from which any or all persons may be excluded." Under this order, all Japanese and Americans of Japanese ancestry were categorically removed from Western coastal regions and sent to internment camps, without regard for due process. Most did not return to Long Beach after their release from the camps. Japanese Americans make up less than 1% of the population of Long Beach, yet the city still has a Japanese Community Center and a Japanese Buddhist Church from its earlier history.

File:Wrigley Long Beach California.jpg

As of the 2000 census, there were 163,088 households out of which 35.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 16.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.9% were non-families. Of all households, 29.6% were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.55.

In the city, the population was spread out with 29.2% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 32.9% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, and 9.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,270, and the median income for a family was $40,002. Males had a median income of $36,807 versus $31,975 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,040. About 19.3% of families and 22.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.7% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. In 2008, the Census Bureau showed the number of people living below the poverty line had dropped to 18.2%.[50]


EconomyEdit

CultureEdit

SportsEdit

GovernmentEdit

InfrastructureEdit

EducationEdit

Primary and secondary schoolsEdit

Public schoolsEdit

Long Beach Unified School District serves most of the City of Long Beach.

Other school districts that serve sections of Long Beach include:

Private schoolsEdit

Colleges and universitiesEdit

Script error California State University, Long Beach is a public, comprehensive university, part of the 23-member California State University system. It is one of the largest universities in California in terms of enrollment with over 35,000 students.

Long Beach City College is a community college established in 1927. It is composed of two separate campuses. The Liberal Arts Campus is located on the residential area of Lakewood Village, while the Pacific Coast Campus is in Central Long Beach.

DeVry University, Long Beach is located in the Kilroy Airport Center. DeVry Long Beach serves students who live or work in the area with undergraduate and graduate degree programs in various career fields.

Pacific Coast University School of Law founded in 1927 is a private, non-profit accredited law school.


TransportationEdit

Ports and freightEdit

File:POLB.jpg

As of 2005, the Port of Long Beach was the second busiest[51] seaport in the United States and the tenth busiest in the world,[citation needed] shipping some 66 million metric tons of cargo worth $95 billion in 2001. The port serves shipping between the United States and the Pacific Rim. The combined operations of the Port of Long Beach and the Port of Los Angeles are the busiest in the USA.

Rail shipping is provided by Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway, which carry about half of the trans-shipments from the port. Long Beach has contributed to the Alameda Corridor project to increase the capacity of the rail lines, roads, and highways connecting the port to the Los Angeles rail hub. The project, completed in 2002, created a trench Script error long and Script error deep in order to eliminate 200 grade crossings and cost about US$2.4 billion.

Long Beach Cruise Terminal

Operated by Carnival Corporation, the Long Beach Cruise Terminal is the year-round home of three cruise ships carrying over 600,000 passengers annually. Passengers are processed in the domed structure that formerly housed the Spruce Goose.[52][53]

Public transportationEdit

Bus and coach services
File:The Passport (Free Bus).JPG

Long Beach Transit provides local public transportation services within Long Beach, Lakewood, and Signal Hill.[54] Long Beach Transit regularly operates 38 bus routes.[55] Most regular service bus routes begin or end at the Long Beach Transit Mall in Downtown Long Beach.

Long Beach Transit also operates the Passport shuttle within downtown Long Beach. The free shuttle carries passengers to the Aquarium of the Pacific, Pine Avenue, Shoreline Village, the Long Beach Convention Center, the Queen Mary, Catalina Landing, various hotels, and other points of interest.[56] During the summer, Long Beach Transit operates the AquaLink, a Script error catamaran that carries passengers between the Downtown Long Beach waterfront and the Alamitos Bay Landing.[57] In addition, during the summer, a 49-passenger water taxis called the AquaBus is provided. With $1 fares, the AquaBus serves six different locations within the downtown Long Beach waterfront.[58]

Several transit operators offer services from the Long Beach Transit Mall. Torrance Transit offers bus service to the South Bay. The Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT) offers bus service to San Pedro. LA Metro operates other regional bus lines. Orange County Transportation Authority offers limited bus service to Orange County. Route 1, from Long Beach to San Clemente is the longest bus route in the OCTA system. Traveling along Pacific Coast Highway for most of the route, it takes 2–2.5 hrs to complete.[59] Amtrak Thruway offers bus shuttles starting in San Pedro, with stops at the Queen Mary and downtown Long Beach, that then goes to Union Station in downtown Los Angeles, and ends in Bakersfield. Greyhound Lines operates the Long Beach Station in Long Beach.[60] A FlyAway bus route to Los Angeles International Airport began service on December 30, 2015.[61] Buses to LAX leave 30 minutes past the hour every hour from 5:30 a.m. to 9:30 p.m.

Light rail
File:Long Beach Transit Gallery (formerly the Long Beach Transit Mall).jpg

The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LA Metro) operates the Blue Line, a light rail service that runs between the Downtown Long Beach Station (known as the Transit Mall Station until July 2013) and the 7th Street/Metro Center Station in Downtown Los Angeles. From the 7th Street/Metro Center Station, passengers can make connections to Hollywood, Union Station, Pasadena, East LA, Universal Studios, Chinatown, and other points of interest along the Los Angeles Metro Rail network. From Union Station in downtown L.A., transit users can access the regional Metrolink (Southern California) rail system to access a vast area of urban Southern California, and connect to nationwide Amtrak trains as well. The Metro Blue Line also offers connections to the Metro Expo Line at both the 7th Street/Metro Center Station and Pico Station with service to Santa Monica. In addition, at Willowbrook Station, passengers can transfer to the Metro Green Line with service to Redondo Beach, Norwalk, and Los Angeles International Airport via an additional shuttle connection. The Metro Blue Line Maintenance Shops are also located in Long Beach just south of the Del Amo Blue Line station.[62]

Taxicabs

Taxicabs in Long Beach serve the tourism and convention industry and local services such as for elderly and disabled residents. Yellow Long Beach is the city's only licensed taxi franchise, with 199 taxicabs in service.[63] Long Beach was the nation's first large city to relax restrictions on cabs by allowing them to offer variable, discounted fares, free rides and other price promotions to lure customers while keeping maximum fares in place. Many other cities have responded to Uber and Lyft by increasing regulation of these new competitors.[64]

AirportsEdit

Long Beach Airport serves the Long Beach, South Bay and northern Orange County areas. It is the West Coast hub for JetBlue Airways. It is also the site of a major Boeing (formerly Douglas, then McDonnell Douglas) aircraft production facility, which is the city's largest non-government employer. Los Angeles International Airport is the nearest airport with international service. John Wayne Airport in Santa Ana, California is another alternative to the airport. However, its only international services are to Canada and Mexico. Other airports with scheduled service are Bob Hope Airport in Burbank and LA/Ontario International Airport in Ontario.

Freeways and highwaysEdit

Several freeways run through Long Beach, connecting it with the greater Los Angeles and Orange County areas. The San Diego Freeway (I-405) bisects the northern and southern portions of the city and takes commuters northwest or southeast to the Golden State/Santa Ana Freeways (I-5). The San Diego Freeway also provides regional access to Long Beach Airport, which is located on the north side of the freeway near Signal Hill. The Long Beach Freeway (I-710) runs north-south on the city's western border, with its southern terminus adjacent to the Port of Long Beach on Terminal Island at the intersection of the Terminal Island Freeway (SR 103) and State Route 47. The Long Beach Freeway is the major spur route serving Long Beach from Downtown Los Angeles, with its northern terminus near Downtown Los Angeles in Alhambra. Along with the Harbor Freeway (I-110) to the west, the Long Beach Freeway is one of the major routes for trucks transporting goods from the Ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles to railyards and distribution centers in Downtown Los Angeles and the Inland Empire. The southern end of the Long Beach Freeway joins Long Beach with Terminal Island via the Gerald Desmond Bridge.

Southeast Long Beach is served by the San Gabriel River Freeway (I-605), which joins the San Diego Freeway at the Long Beach/Los Alamitos border. The Artesia Freeway (SR 91) runs east-west near the northern border of Long Beach. The western portion of the Garden Grove Freeway (SR 22) provides a spur off of the San Diego and 605 Freeways to 7th Street in southeast Long Beach for access to the VA Hospital, California State University, Long Beach, and Alamitos Bay.

Pacific Coast Highway (SR 1) takes an east to southwest route through the southern portion of Long Beach. Its intersection with Lakewood Boulevard (SR 19) and Los Coyotes Diagonal is the Los Alamitos Traffic Circle.

Bicycles and pedestriansEdit

The city of Long Beach's vision is to be the most bicycle-friendly urban city in the nation. The city of Long Beach has five major Class 1 bike paths (separate off-road bike paths) within its boundaries, encompassing over Script error. The city also has many Class 2 (painted lanes on roadway) and Class 3 paths (connecting bike routes with shared use of road with cars).[65]

A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Long Beach the eleventh most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.[66]

New bikeway signs can be found throughout Long Beach to identify designated bike routes and provide wayfinding information for cyclists. Generally you will find even numbers assigned to east/west routes; odd numbers assigned to north/south routes; and route numbers increasing as they progress from south to north. The signage was funded through a grant provided by Metro, and they include new route numbers that have been assigned to all bike paths, bike lanes and bike routes that correspond to the city's new bike map.

The Script error Shoreline Pedestrian Bikepath runs along the ocean from Shoreline Village to Belmont Shore. The southern terminus of the L.A. River bicycle path is located in southwest Long Beach between Downtown and the Port. The southern terminus of the San Gabriel River bicycle path is located just east of Long Beach in Seal Beach, and the trail runs north through the El Dorado Park neighborhood in east Long Beach and adjacent to El Dorado Regional Park.

The city's green lane project in Belmont Shore (sharrows, bike boxes) earned an award from the Institute of Transportation Engineers for best innovative project of the year (2010). In an effort to provide sustainable transportation alternatives to the community, as well as a safe route to several neighborhood schools, the city of Long Beach is also installing a "bike boulevard" on Vista Street, extending from Temple Avenue to Nieto Avenue.

In April 2011, new separated bikeways were added to two streets in downtown Long Beach along Broadway and 3rd Street – between Alamitos Ave. and Golden Ave. These are one-way streets with two lanes of through traffic, one parking lane and a protected bikeway. Bike signals are installed at intersections to control safe crossing of cyclists in the separated lanes and regulate motor vehicle left turns across the bikeway.


MediaEdit

Film and televisionEdit

Balboa Amusement Producing Company, also known as Balboa Studios, was located at Sixth Street and Alamitos Avenue; they used Script error on Signal Hill for outdoor locations. Silent film stars who lived in Long Beach included Fatty Arbuckle and Theda Bara. The 1917 film Cleopatra, starring Theda Bara, was filmed at the Dominguez Slough just west of Long Beach, and Moses parted the Red Sea for Cecil B. DeMille's 1923 version of The Ten Commandments on the flat seashore of Seal Beach, southeast of Long Beach. Long Beach was the famous location of Paramount newsreel footage of the 1933 Long Beach earthquake, out-takes from the W.C. Fields featurette International House (1933 film) was possibly the first earthquake to be captured in action on film.

Because of its proximity to LA-area studios and its variety of locations, today Long Beach is regularly used for movies, television shows, and advertisements. The city has filled in for locations across the nation and around the globe.[67] One advantage for Long Beach is that the film industry uses a zone that extends Script error from Beverly Blvd. and La Cienega Blvd. in the West Hollywood area. It is cheaper to film within that zone, so Long Beach and other South Bay cities often stand in for areas of Orange County (such as for The O.C. TV show[68]) because almost all of Orange County is outside of the zone.

One of the most famous Long Beach movie locations is the home of Ferris Bueller in Ferris Bueller's Day Off. Though the film was set in the North Shore suburbs of Chicago the actual house is located at 4160 Country Club Dr.[69]

Long Beach's high schools are especially popular with the film industry. Long Beach Polytechnic High School has played host to numerous films, featuring its outdoor grounds in films such as Coach Carter, among others. Robert A. Millikan High School has also lent its classrooms and hallways to films such as American Pie, among others. Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo High School has been a very popular place to film movies as well, with 2-4 movies filmed per year, and is currently being used to film 20th Century Fox's musical comedy-drama, Glee. St. Anthony High School's gymnasium has also been featured in a few movies and television shows, including Coach Carter and Joan of Arcadia. Long Beach Woodrow Wilson High School was used to film Alvin and the Chipmunks: The Squeakquel and has been used for commercials for Nike and Adidas, particularly one with Los Angeles Sparks basketball star Candace Parker. The movie Freedom Writers, although not filmed there, was based on Long Beach Woodrow Wilson High School.

Other locations in Long Beach have been used quite frequently as well. Shoreline Drive visually approximates a freeway but is a municipal roadway and permits are accepted for its closure for filming – it has become a frequent film and television freeway stand-in. Many car chase and crash scenes have been filmed on stretches of road near the Long Beach harbor and along the city's Shoreline Drive. Among these are the 1963 movie It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World and numerous episodes of the 1970s TV drama CHiPs. Long Beach's downtown neighborhood has stood in for various urban areas in a variety of films. Multiple scenes from the movie Gone in 60 Seconds and Speed[70] were filmed in Long Beach. Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen was also filmed in Long Beach and so was Big Momma's House 2 and Freedom Writers. CSI: Miami, Dexter, and Jane the Virgin, although set in Miami, Florida, regularly film in Long Beach. Much of Tenacious D: The Pick of Destiny was filmed in Long Beach. Although there was a chase scene Downtown, most of Tenacious D was filmed at Alex's Bar at 2913 E. Anaheim St. A Punk Rock/Alternative Rock Venue. Most of the viral hit Mega Shark Versus Giant Octopus was also filmed by the Belmont Veterans Memorial Pier and Alamitos power station in Long Beach. The Long Beach Terrace Theatre has also been used for various commercials, an episode of Glee, as well as the movie Last Action Hero.

PrintEdit

Long Beach's daily newspaper is the Long Beach Press-Telegram, which is distributed throughout most of the Gateway Cities and South Bay areas of southwest Los Angeles County. The Press-Telegram is owned by Digital First Media and is part of the Los Angeles Newspaper Group, which has several newspapers in the Southern California area which share resources and reporters.

On September 30, 1933, the Press-Telegram published what David Dayen called "One of the more influential letters to the editor in American history": Francis Townsend's letter outlining the Townsend Plan, a proposal that sparked a national campaign which influenced the establishment of the Roosevelt administration's Social Security system.[71]

California State University, Long Beach also has a student newspaper published four times a week during the fall and spring semesters, the Daily Forty-Niner.

Long Beach also gets distribution of the daily Los Angeles Times and La Opinión newspapers, plus the weekly Los Angeles Sentinel.

The Gazette newspapers called The Grunion Gazette, The Downtown Gazette, and The Uptown Gazette are free, weekly newspapers that focus on various parts of the city. The Gazettes were sold to MediaNews (now Digital First Media), owner of the Press-Telegram, in 2004.[72]

Palacio Magazine (formerly Palacio de Long Beach) is a free quarterly,[73] bilingual magazine which runs stories focusing on community, education, art, health and wellness side-by-side in English and Spanish.[74]

Although not based in Long Beach, the alternative weeklies OC Weekly and LA Weekly are distributed widely in Long Beach. Starting in 2007, Long Beach was served by its own The District Weekly, an alternative weekly that covered news, the arts, restaurants, and the local music scene. The District Weekly ceased publication in March 2010, citing lack of advertiser support.

In 2013 Freedom Communications, owner of the Orange County Register, launched a five-day daily newspaper, the Long Beach Register, aimed at competing with the Press-Telegram.[75] In September 2014, the Long Beach Register was reduced to Sundays only, and was distributed as an insert in the Orange County Register. In August of the same year, just sixteen months after its much-publicized launch, Freedom Communications announced it would cease publication of the Long Beach Register completely,[76] citing lack of reader and advertiser interest.[77]

RadioEdit

Long Beach is part of the Los Angeles DMA radio and television markets. Although a few radio stations have had studios in Long Beach over the years, including the 1980s alternative music and later hard rock station KNAC, the only remaining radio stations in Long Beach are the jazz and blues station KKJZ on the Cal State Long Beach campus, and the Christian radio broadcaster KFRN.


Notable peopleEdit

Sister citiesEdit

Long Beach's sister cities are, Template:Asof:[78]

See alsoEdit

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ReferencesEdit

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  41. Overhead view of Los Cerritos Wetlands.
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External linksEdit

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