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Pinocchio
Pinocchio-1940-poster
Original theatrical release poster
Film information

Directed by

Ben Sharpsteen
Hamilton Luske
Norman Ferguson
T. Hee
Wilfred Jackson
Jack Kinney
Bill Roberts

Produced by

Walt Disney

Screenplay by

Ted Sears
Otto Englander
Webb Smith
William Cottrell
Joseph Sabo
Erdman Penner
Aurelius Battaglia

Based on

Script error

Starring

Cliff Edwards
Dickie Jones
Christian Rub
Mel Blanc
Walter Catlett
Charles Judels
Evelyn Venable
Frankie Darro

Narrated by

Cliff Edwards

Music by

Leigh Harline
Paul J. Smith
Oliver Wallace

Studio

Walt Disney Productions

Distributed by

RKO Radio Pictures

Release Date(s)

Flag of the United States February 23, 1940

Running time

88 minutes

Language

English

Budget

$2,289,247[1]

Gross Revenue

$84,254,167 (inc. reissues)[2]

Pinocchio is a 1940 American animated film produced by Walt Disney and based on the story The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi. It is the 2nd animated feature in the Walt Disney Animated Classics series. It was made after the success of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. It was released to theaters by RKO Radio Pictures on February 7, 1940.

The plot of the film involves an old wood-carver named Geppetto who carves a wooden puppet named Pinocchio who is brought to life by a blue fairy, who tells him he can become a real boy if he proves himself "brave, truthful, and unselfish". Thus begin the puppet's adventures to become a real boy, which involve many encounters with a host of unsavory characters.

The film was adapted by Aurelius Battaglia, William Cottrell, Otto Englander, Erdman Penner, Joseph Sabo, Ted Sears, and Webb Smith from Collodi's book. The production was supervised by Ben Sharpsteen and Hamilton Luske, and the film's sequences were directed by Norman Ferguson, T. Hee, Wilfred Jackson, Jack Kinney, and Bill Roberts. Well-known children's book creator Bill Peet worked on the film while at Disney, though uncredited: "I spent almost two years on Pinocchio and received no credit," he said in an interview.[3]

Pinocchio won two Academy Awards, one for Best Original Score and one for Best Original Song for the song "When You Wish upon a Star".

PlotEdit

After singing the film's signature song "When You Wish upon a Star" over the opening credits, Jiminy Cricket explains to the audience that he is going to tell a story of a wish coming true. Opening the book, in flashback, he tells how he moved into the workshop of the woodworker Geppetto one night to warm himself from the cold. The old woodworker lives alone with his cat, Figaro and his fish, Cleo. Jiminy watches as Geppetto finishes work on a wooden marionette whom he names Pinocchio. Before falling asleep, Geppetto makes a wish on a star that Pinocchio could be a real boy. During the night, the star, in the form of a Blue Fairy, visits the workshop to grant Geppetto's wish. She makes Pinocchio come alive, while remaining still a puppet. The fairy tells Pinocchio that if he wants to become a real boy of flesh and blood he must prove himself to be brave, truthful and unselfish and able to tell right from wrong by listening to his conscience. Pinocchio does not understand what a conscience is, and Jiminy reveals himself to explain it to him. The Blue Fairy asks if Jiminy would serve as Pinocchio's conscience, a task he accepts.

Geppetto discovers that his wish has come true, and is filled with joy. The next day, he sends Pinocchio on his first day of school. However, the naive Pinocchio is spotted by the conniving con artists Honest John and Gideon, who quickly decide to sell the living puppet for money. They convince him to join Stromboli's puppet show instead. Pinocchio becomes Stromboli's star attraction as a magic string-less marionette. Jiminy, seeing Pinocchio's sudden success, decides he has failed as a conscience and leaves. Gepetto, worried about Pinocchio's absence, goes out to look for him. Stromboli, meanwhile, expects to make much more money with Pinocchio working for him. When Pinocchio wants to go home for the night (though promising to come back in the morning), Stromboli turns brutal and locks Pinocchio in a birdcage to prevent him from leaving, and warns him that if he grows too old, he will chop him into firewood. Jiminy returns to Pinocchio, but is unable to free him. During the night, the Blue Fairy comes to ask why Pinocchio disobeyed Geppetto. Despite Jiminy's urgings, Pinocchio tells an overblown story to hide his shame, but with each lie his nose grows and grows until it is like the branch of a tree. The Blue Fairy explains that "a lie will keep growing and growing, until it's as plain as the nose on your face." Pinocchio vows to do better from now on and the Blue Fairy changes his nose back to normal and sets him free, warning that this will be the last time she helps him.

Meanwhile, Honest John and Gideon meet up with the sinister Coachman in a local tavern and boast of their success luring Pinocchio away. Impressed by their story, the Coachmen tells them of his business 'collecting stupid little boys' and taking them to Pleasure Island. He offers them a reward for every boy they bring to him.

Unfortunately, on his way back to Geppetto's house, Pinocchio is once again led astray by Honest John and Gideon, who convince him that he is sick, and the only cure is to go to Pleasure Island. He is put on the coach, with Jiminy secretly following. On his way Pinocchio befriends Lampwick, a misbehaved and destructive boy. Soon Pinocchio and the other boys arrive on the island, where there are no adults, and boys are free to enjoy gambling, smoking, getting drunk and wanton destruction, much to Jiminy's dismay. Jiminy angrily confronts Pinocchio for his behavior, but is brutally taunted by Lampwick, and furiously walks out on both of them. Then Jiminy discovers the island harbours a terrible curse. After a day of pleasure and destructive behavior, the boys transform into donkeys, who are then sold to work in the salt mines and circuses as part of an evil racket run by The Coachman and his ape-like henchmen. Lampwick is soon transformed into a donkey, but with Jiminy's help, Pinocchio manages to escape with only a donkey's ears and tail.

Upon returning home, they find the workshop empty and soon learn (from a letter by the Blue Fairy) that Geppetto, while venturing out to sea to rescue Pinocchio from Pleasure Island, had been swallowed, along with Figaro and Cleo, by a giant whale named Monstro. Determined to rescue his father, Pinocchio jumps into the bottom of the ocean, with Jiminy accompanying him. However, Pinocchio is soon found and swallowed by Monstro, where he is reunited with Geppetto and his pets inside the whale. While shocked at Pinocchio's donkey-ears and tail, Geppetto is just glad to have his "little wooden head" back. Although Gepetto has given up on escaping, Pinocchio devises an escape plan by burning wood in order to make Monstro sneeze them out. The plan works, but the enraged whale gives chase and destroys their raft. Eventually, Pinocchio succeeds in getting Geppetto to safety in a cave under a cliff before Monstro rams into it. Despite Monstro's defeat, Pinocchio dies while saving them. Back in Gepetto's house, as the group mourns over Pinocchio's body, the Blue Fairy is touched by his sacrifice and resurrects him into human-form, much to the joy of his family. When Jiminy steps outside to thank the Fairy, she decides he has done well, and gives him a gold badge that certifies him as an official conscience.

CastEdit

File:Pinocchio 1940.jpg
  • Dickie Jones as Pinocchio, a happy wooden puppet carved by Geppetto and turned into a living puppet by the Blue Fairy. Jones also voices Alexander, one of the boys who transformed into a donkey on Pleasure Island. Alexander can still talk and is hurled into a special holding pen for suchlike donkeys. Pinocchio is animated by Milt Kahl, and Alexander is animated by Eric Larson.
  • Cliff Edwards as Jiminy Cricket, a cheerful cricket who acts as Pinocchio's "conscience" and the partial narrator of the story. He is animated by Ward Kimball.
  • Christian Rub as Mister Geppetto, a woodcarver who creates Pinocchio and wishes for him to become a real boy. He is animated by Art Babbitt.
  • Figaro and Cleo, Geppetto's tuxedo cat and goldfish, respectively, who do not like each other very much until the end of the film when Pinocchio becomes a real boy. They are animated by Eric Larson.
  • John Worthington Foulfellow (Walter Catlett), also known as Honest John, is a sly anthropomorphic fox and known criminal who tricks Pinocchio twice in the film. Animated by John Lounsbery.
  • Gideon, Honest John's mute and crafty anthropomorphic feline accomplice. His voice was originally to be supplied by Mel Blanc of Looney Tunes fame (in his only work for Disney until Who Framed Roger Rabbit), but they deleted his dialogue in favor of a mute performance (e.g. Harpo Marx) just like Dopey of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. However, Gideon's hiccups were provided by Blanc. He was animated by John Lounsbery.
  • Charles Judels as Stromboli, a large, sinister, bearded puppet maker who forces Pinocchio to perform onstage in order to make money. He speaks in an Italian accent, though he is identified as being a gypsy. He is the only villain of the film to be part of the official Disney Villains line-up. He is not seen again after the scene when Pinocchio is locked up, so his defeat remains unknown, but it is likely that his career suffered a slump without Pinocchio. Judels also voices The Coachman, a corrupt and sadistic coachman who owns and operates Pleasure Island. He enjoys turning unruly boys into donkeys. He speaks in a Cockney accent. The look of the Coachman is like Charles Laughton in Jamaica Inn by A. Hitchcock (1939). Like Stromboli, his fate is left unrevealed. Stromboli is animated by Bill Tytla, and the Coachman is animated by Charles August Nichols.
  • Evelyn Venable as The Blue Fairy, the beautiful fairy who brings Pinocchio to life and turns him into a real boy at the end. She is animated by Jack Campbell.
  • Frankie Darro as Lampwick, a naughty boy Pinocchio meets and befriends on his way to Pleasure Island. He turns into a donkey while the boys are shooting pool. He is animated by Fred Moore.
  • Thurl Ravenscroft as Monstro, the whale that swallows Geppetto, Figaro, and Cleo during their search for Pinocchio. Pinocchio is later swallowed when Monstro is eating and he and Geppetto reunite. Monstro's whale sounds were provided by Thurl Ravenscroft, and he was animated by Wolfgang Reitherman.

ProductionEdit

In September 1937, during the production of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, animator Norman Ferguson brought a translated version of Carlo Collodi's 1883 Italian children's novel, The Adventures of Pinocchio to the attention of Walt Disney. After reading the book "Walt was busting his guts with enthusiasm" as Ferguson said.[4] Pinocchio was intended to be the studio's third film, after Bambi. However, Bambi proved to be a challenging film to adapt, so Pinocchio was moved ahead in production while Bambi was put on hold.[5]

The plan for the original film was considerably different from what was released. Numerous characters and plot points from the original novel were used in early drafts. Walt Disney was displeased with the work that was being done and called a halt to the project midway into production so that the concept could be rethought and the characters redesigned.[5]

Originally, Pinocchio was to be depicted as a Charlie McCarthy-esque wise guy, equally as rambunctious and sarcastic as the puppet in the original novel.[5] He looked exactly like a real wooden puppet with a long pointed nose, a peaked cap and bare wooden hands. However Walt found that no one could really sympathize with such a character. Lead animator, Milt Kahl was given the task to redesign the puppet by animating a test sequence where Pinocchio is underwater looking for his father.[5] In this scene he re-envisioned the character by giving him a more innocent personality and making him look more like a real boy, with a button nose, a child's Tyrolean hat, and standard cartoon character 4-fingered (or 3 and a thumb) hands with Mickey Mouse-type gloves on them. Milt quoted, "I don't think of him as a puppet, I think of him as a little boy".[5] The only parts of him that still looked more or less like a puppet were his arms and legs. In this film, he is still led astray by deceiving characters, but gradually learns bit by bit and is depicted as innocent, naïve, somewhat coy and exhibits a good heart. For example when he is offered to go to Pleasure Island he inquires he needs to go home several times, before Honest John and Gideon pick him up themselves and carry him away.

Additionally, it was at this stage that the character of the cricket was expanded and Jiminy Cricket became central to the story. Originally the cricket was only a minor character that Pinocchio killed by squashing him with a mallet (the cricket appeared as a ghost later on).[5] Once the character was expanded, he was depicted as an actual (that is, less anthropomorphized) cricket with toothed legs and waving antennae.[5] But again Walt wanted something more likable. Ward Kimball had spent several months animating a "Soup Eating Sequence" in Snow White which was cut from the film due to pacing reasons. Ward was about to quit until Walt rewarded him for his work by promoting him to the "supervising animator" of Jiminy Cricket.[5] Ward conjured up the design for Jiminy Cricket as "a little man with an egg head and no ears. And the only thing that makes him a cricket is because we call him one."[6]

Due to the huge success of Snow White, Walt Disney wanted more famous voices for Pinocchio, which marked the first time an animated film had used celebrities as voice actors.[4] The cast included Cliff Edwards as Jiminy Cricket, Dickie Jones as Pinocchio, Walter Catlett as Foulfellow the Fox, Christian Rub as Geppetto (the design of the character was even a caricature of him),[5] Frankie Darro as Lampwick, Evelyn Venable as the The Blue Fairy and Charles Judels played both the villainous Stromboli and The Coachman.

Another voice actor was Mel Blanc most famous for voicing many of the characters in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoons from Warner Bros. He was hired to perform the voice of Gideon the Cat. However, it was eventually decided for Gideon to be mute just like Dopey, whose whimsical, Harpo Marx-style persona made him one of Snow White's most comic and popular characters. All of Blanc's recorded dialogue in this film was subsequently deleted except for a solitary hiccup, which was heard three times in the film.

During the production of the film the character model department was set-up headed by Joe Grant.[5] The character model department was responsible for the building of three-dimensional clay models of the characters in the film, known as maquettes. These were then given to the staff to observe how a character should be drawn from any given angle desired by the artists.[5] The model makers also built working models of Geppetto's cuckoo clocks, as well as Stromboli's gypsy wagon and The Coachman's carriage. However since it is difficult to animate a realistic moving vehicle, Disney filmed the carriage maquettes on a miniature set using stop motion animation. Then each frame of the animation was transferred on to onto animation cels using an early verson on a xerox. The cels were then panted on the back and overlayed on top of background images with the cels of the characters to create the completed shot on the rostrum camera.[5][7]

Like Snow White live Action footage for Pinocchio was shot with the actors acting out the scenes. The animators used them as a guide for animating and studied how human beings move and incorporate some poses into the animation, but exaggerated them slightly.[5] The animators referred to this as Live Action Reference rather than rotoscoping. However some rotoscoping was used in the animation of the Blue Fairy.

Pinocchio was a ground breaking achievement in effects animation. In contrast to the character animators who concentrate on the acting of the characters, effects animators create anything else that moves that is not the character. This includes vehicles, machinery, and natural effects such as rain, lightning, snow, smoke, shadows, and water, as well as the fantasy or science-fiction type effects like Fairy Dust.[5] The influential abstract animator Oskar Fischinger who mainly worked on Fantasia contributed to the effects animation of the Blue Fairy's wand.[8] Effects animator, Sandy Strother kept a diary about his year-long animation of the water effects in Pinocchio which included splashes, ripples, bubbles, waves, and the illusion of being underwater. To help give depth to the ocean, the animators put more detail on the waves on the water surface in the foreground, and put less detail in as the surface moved further back. After the animation was traced onto cels, they would trace it once more with blue and black script to pencil leads to give the waves a sculptured look.[5] To save time and money, the splashes were kept impressionistic. This marked Pinocchio to be one of the first animated films to have highly realistic effects animation.

ReceptionEdit

Pinocchio went into release accompanied by generally positive reviews. Archer Winsten, who had criticized Snow White, wrote: "The faults that were in Snow White no longer exist. In writing of Pinocchio, you are limited only by your own power of expressing enthusiasm." Jiminy Cricket's song, "When You Wish upon a Star", became a major hit and is still identified with the film, and later as a fanfare for The Walt Disney Company itself. Pinocchio also won the Academy Award for Best Original Song and Best Original Score, making it the first Disney film to win not only either Oscar, but also both at the same time. This did not occur again until Mary Poppins in 1964 and The Little Mermaid in 1989.

Financially however, Pinocchio was not initially a success.[1] The box office returns from the film's initial release were both below Snow White's unprecedented success and below studio expectations.[1][9] Of the film's $2.289 million negative cost - twice the cost of Snow White- Disney only reoccupied $1 million by late 1940, with studio reports of the film's final original box office take varying between $1.4 million and $1.9 million.[1] This was primarily due to the fact that World War II and its aftermath had cut off the European and Asian markets overseas, and hindered the international success of Pinocchio and other Disney releases during the early and mid-1940s.[1] Joe Grant recalled Walt Disney being "very, very depressed" about Pinocchio's initial returns at the box office.[9] RKO recorded a loss of $94,000 for the film.[10]

Despite its initial struggles at the box office, a series of reissues in the years after World War II proved more successful, and allowed the film to turn a profit. By 1973, the film had earned $13 million from the initial 1940 release and four reissues;[11] further reissues in subsequent years have brought Pinocchio's lifetime gross to $84,254,167 at the box office.[12]

In 1994, Pinocchio was added to the United States National Film Registry as being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant." Filmmaker Terry Gilliam selected it as one of the ten best animated films of all time in a 2001 article written for The Guardian [13] and in 2005, Time.com named it one of the 100 best films of the last 80 years. Many film historians consider this to be the film that most closely approaches technical perfection of all the Disney animated features.[14] Film critic Leonard Maltin stated that "with Pinocchio, Disney reached not only the height of his powers, but the apex of what many critics consider to be the realm of the animated cartoon."[15]

In June 2008, the American Film Institute revealed its "Ten top Ten"—the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. Pinocchio was acknowledged as the second best film in the animation genre, after Snow White.[16] In June 2011, TIME named it the best animated movie of "The 25 All-TIME Best Animated Films".

On Rotten Tomatoes, a website which aggregates film reviews, the film has the website's highest rating of 100%, meaning every single one of the 37 reviews of the film, from contemporaneous reviews to modern re-appraisals, on the site are positive. The general consensus of the film on the site is "Ambitious, adventurous, and sometimes frightening, Pinocchio represents the pinnacle of Disney's collected works- it's beautifully crafted and emotionally resonant." [17]

ControversyEdit

At the time of the film's release, some critics accused the film of being too frightening to children as they had earlier with 'Snow White.'[citation needed] Even today some Template:Who express disturbance over the implied violence of some scenes, and the scenes on Pleasure Island of young boys smoking cigars and drinking beer. Some scenes, like the donkey transformation sequence, are still thought to be frightening,[citation needed] but compared with Collodi's original novel, the tone of the film is much lighter.

Awards and honorsEdit

American Film Institute recognition

ReissuesEdit

With the re-release of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1944 came the tradition of re-releasing Disney films every seven to ten years. Pinocchio has been theatrically re-released in 1945, 1954, 1962, 1971, 1978, 1984, and 1992. RKO handled the first two reissues in 1945 and 1954, while Disney itself reissued the film from 1962 on through its Buena Vista Distribution division. The 1992 re-issue was digitally restored by cleaning and removing scratches from the original negatives one frame at a time, eliminating soundtrack distortions, and revitalizing the color. The film also received five video releases, three DVD releases, and one Blu-ray release, the first video release on VHS and CED Videodisc was a hot-seller in 1985 (this print was re-mastered and re-issued in 1986).

The more comprehensive digital restoration that was done for the 1992 re-issue was released on VHS in 1993, followed by its fourth VHS release and first release on Disney DVD in 1999. The film did not make it into the Walt Disney Masterpiece Collection, although early printings of the 1999 VHS did use the Masterpiece Collection logo. The second Disney DVD release and final issue in the VHS format (the first in the Walt Disney Gold Classics Collection VHS/DVD line) premiered the following year in 2000. The third DVD release and first Blu-ray Disc release (the second Blu-ray in the Walt Disney Platinum Editions series) were released on March 10, 2009 (March 11, 2009 in Australia). Like the 2008 Sleeping Beauty Blu-ray release, the Pinocchio Blu-ray package featured a new restoration by Lowry Digital in a two-disc Blu-ray set, with a bonus DVD version of the film also included.[18] This set returned to the Disney Vault on April 30, 2011.[19]

Home mediaEdit

  • July 16, 1985 (VHS, Betamax, CED Videodisc, and Laserdisc, Classics edition)
  • October 14, 1986 (VHS and Betamax, remastered Classics edition)
  • March 26, 1993 (VHS and Laserdisc, restored Classics edition)
  • July 1993 (VHS made in Brazil - Abril Vídeo/Walt Disney Home Video)
  • April 16, 1995 (VHS made in the UK - Disney Videos, Classics edition, Spanish-dubbed Clásicos edition)
  • October 26, 1999 (60th Anniversary Edition, as well as a Limited Issue DVD)
  • March 7, 2000 (VHS and DVD, Gold Classic Edition)
  • March 10, 2009 (70th Anniversary Platinum Edition DVD and Blu-ray)
  • January 31, 2017 (Signature Collection DVD and Blu-ray Tape)

SoundtrackEdit

Main article: Pinocchio (soundtrack)

The songs in Pinocchio were composed by Leigh Harline and Lyrics by Ned Washington. Leigh Harline, Oliver Wallace and Paul J. Smith composed the incidental music score.

The music CD sets Classic Disney: 60 Years of Musical Magic and Disney's Greatest Hits include "When You Wish upon a Star", "Give a Little Whistle", and "I've Got No Strings".

Songs written for film but not usedEdit

  • "I'm a Happy-Go-Lucky Fellow" - Jiminy Cricket (this song eventually showed up in Fun and Fancy Free)
  • "As I Was Saying to the Duchess" - J. Worthington Foulfellow (this line is spoken briefly by Foulfellow in the film, however)
  • "Three Cheers for Anything" - Lampwick, Pinocchio, Alexander, Other Boys
  • "Monstro the Whale" - Chorus
  • "Honest John" (this song appears as a bonus feature on the 70th Anniversary Platinum Edition Blu-ray and DVD)
  • "Turn On the Old Music Box" - Jiminy Cricket

Media and merchandiseEdit

Theme parksEdit

Other filmsEdit

Cruise shipsEdit

  • Pinocchio's Pizzeria is a quick service restaurant aboard both the Disney Magic and the Disney Wonder that serves multiple types of pizzas.
  • The horn sound of the Disney Cruise Line ships is to the tune of a song in this film, "When You Wish Upon a Star". Also another one of the Disney Dream's horns is to the tune of another song in this film, "Hi-Diddle-Dee-Dee (An Actor's Life For Me)".

Ice showEdit

Disney on Ice starring Pinocchio, toured internationally from 1987 to 1992. A shorter version of the story is also presented in the current Disney on Ice production "100 Years of Magic".

Video gamesEdit

Aside from the Sega Mega Drive (Or Genesis in North America), Game Boy, and Super Nintendo games based on the animated film, Geppetto and Pinocchio also appear as characters in the game Kingdom Hearts. The inside of Monstro is also featured as one of the worlds. Jiminy Cricket appears as well, acting as a recorder, keeping a journal of the game's progress in Kingdom Hearts, Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories, and, Kingdom Hearts II.[25] Pinocchio's home world was slated to appear in Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days, but was omitted due to time restrictions, although talk-sprites of Pinocchio, Geppetto, Honest John and Gideon have been revealed.[26][27] As compensation, this world appears in Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance, under the name "Prankster's Paradise", with Dream world versions of Pinocchio, Jiminy Cricket, Geppetto, Cleo, Monstro and the Blue Fairy appearing.

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Barrier, Michael (1999). Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age. New York.: Oxford University Press. pp. 269–273, 602. ISBN 0-19-516729-5Script error. 
  2. "Pinocchio". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=pinocchio.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  3. "Seldom Re-Peeted: The Bill Peet Interview," Hogan's Alley #5, 1998
  4. 4.0 4.1 Gabler, Neal (2006) Walt Disney, The Triumph of American Imagination, Alfred A. Knopf Inc. New York City, U.S.A
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 No Strings Attached: The Making of Pinocchio- Pinocchio, 2009 DVD
  6. Commentary-Pinocchio, 2009 DVD
  7. Barrier, Michael, 1999,Hollywood Cartoons, Oxford University, United Kingdom
  8. Moritz, William. Fischinger at Disney - or Oskar in the Mousetrap. Millimeter. 5. 2 (1977): 25-28, 65-67. Center for Visual Music
  9. 9.0 9.1 Thomas, Bob (1994). Walt Disney: An American Original. New York.: Hyperion Books. pp. 161. ISBN 0-7868-6027-8Script error. 
  10. Richard Jewell & Vernon Harbin, The RKO Story. New Rochelle, New York: Arlington House, 1982. p145
  11. Wasko, Janet (2001). Understanding Disney: the manufacture of fantasy. New York.: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 137. ISBN 0-7456-1484-1Script error. 
  12. Movie Box Office Figures
  13. Gilliam, Terry (April 27, 2001). "Terry Gilliam Picks the Ten Best Animated Films of All Time". The Guardian. http://film.guardian.co.uk/features/featurepages/0,,479022,00.html. 
  14. Disney Archives | "Pinocchio" Movie History
  15. Maltin, Leonard (1973). Pinocchio. In Leonard Maltin (Ed.), The Disney Book, pp. 37. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.
  16. "AFI's 10 Top 10". American Film Institute. 2008-06-17. http://www.afi.com/10top10/animation.html. Retrieved 2008-06-18. 
  17. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/1016342-pinocchio/
  18. DVD Empire
  19. http://disneydvd.disney.go.com/pinocchio.html
  20. Disneyland California’s Pinocchio’s Daring Journey Page
  21. Tokyo Disney’s Pinocchio’s Daring Journey Page
  22. Disneyland Paris’ Les Voyages de Pinocchio Page
  23. Walt Disney World’s Magic Kingdom Page
  24. Graham, Bill (November 21, 2010). "Exclusive Video Interview with TANGLED Directors Nathan Greno and Byron Howard". Collider.com. http://collider.com/tangled-director-nathan-greno-byron-howard-interview-video/61497/. Retrieved July 20, 2011. 
  25. Kingdom Hearts Official Page
  26. Unused Sprites In 358/2 Days?
  27. Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days: Fan Powered Q&A

External linksEdit

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